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Important Chemical Reactions

Displacement Reactions and Net Ionic Reactions

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AP Chemistry Exam Date of Exam. 05 May 2014 Monday 8 A. M.

AP Exam Grades
The Students scores on the free-response questions are combined with the results of the computer-scored multiple-choice questions; the weighted raw scores are summed to give a composite score. The composite score is then converted to a grade on a 5 point scale:

AP Exam Gradings
Extremely Well Qualified
Well Qualified
3 Qualified
2 Possibly Qualified
No Recommendation
The Exam
The AP Chemistry Exam has two main parts
Section I - 90 minutes 60 Multiple choice questions (MCQs) Calculators are not permitted.
Total weightage  :   50%
MCQs are either discreet questions or sets of question, Questions are based on the knowledge of Chemistry and Science practices outlined in AP Chemistry course. Question sets are new types of questions in which a stimulus in the form data or series of questions will be provided. No negative  marking or no marks deducted for incorrectly answered questions. Score is based on the number of questions correctly answered.

Section II 
  90 Minutes Three long free response questions ,two short free response questions.Programmable or graphic calculators are permitted.

Total weightage   :      50%

Questions will be based on:
(1)   Experimental procedures, data, graphs observations and error analysis.
(2)   Explanation of phenomena based on molecular, atomic level of the matter   
(3)   Logical and analytical path ways to solve a problem.
Commonly used equations sheet will be provided with each exam for use. However in free response exam no marks will be awarded for simply writing the correct equations. No marks will be awarded for ambiguous answers without any reasonable explanations.


Use of Calculators in AP Chemistry exam.

Calculators are not permitted in section I and questions based on simple calculators will be the part of section I. Programmable or graphic calculators are permitted for the entire free response exam. Calculators will not be allowed to share and calculators with type writer style (QWERTY) keyboards will not be permittted
Study Packages

The study packages for AP Chemistry Exam have been designed to cover the complete AP syllabus for Chemistry. The package can be customized as per your requirements.

Study Material.
I use the relevant study material for AP Chemistry Exam for comprehension of the subject in detail. I use my own presentations which have been prepared keeping the requirements of the students in mind.

Chemistry Practice Quizzes .I also provide Chemistry Quizzes for AP Chemistry Exam which students can attempt in their own time and discuss with me during the sessions. Please feel free to Contact Me for any clarifications.

 Study Topics .The study topics which are covered in the AP Chemistry exam have been given out below.

Limiting reactant AP Chemistry Trial Quiz

Quiz : Limiting Reactants

Learning Objectives : 6 Big Ideas

Big Idea 1 : Structure of matter


1.1 States of matter, Laws of chemical combinations.Elements, compounds and molecules, Mixtures and substances

1.2 Empirical and molecular formula, Percent purity of a compound.


1.3 Mole and quantative calculations based on mole concept. Atomic mass unit in amu and gram. Average atomic masses and relative atomic masses. Avogadro’s number and molar mass.


1.4 Electrons, protons and neutrons Coulomb’s law, Ionization energies Photo electron spectroscopy (PES). Calculations of the ionization energy using photoelectric effect. Use of PES to determine. the electriconic configurations of atoms in multi electrons system.


1.5 Elctronic configurations, quantum numbers.Hund’s Rule, Aufbau principle, Heisenberg’s uncertainity principle,Pauli's exclusion principle shells, subshells, inner core electrons, valence electrons, Orbitals.

1.6 Periodicity and periodic table.  Predicting electronic configurations from the periodic table.Periodic trends for first Ionization Energy, atomic and ionic radii electronegativity and ionic charges. Similarity of chemical properties of the elements of the same group.Molecular designing based on periodic trends.

1.7 Different Atomic models and its refinement based on the Ionization energies values.

1.8 Mass spectroscopy, Isotopes and average atomic masses.

1.9 Electromagnetic waves or light Planck’s equation, photon, relation between energy of photon, wavelength frequency and wave number.

1.10 Importance of different spectral regions to determine. the type of bonds and to probe electronic structure.

1.11 Beer – Lambert’s law to determine. the concentrations of the solution.

1.12 Law of conservation of mass or matter during a chemical or physical process. Concept of balancing the reaction.

1.13 Types of the Chemical reactions. Gravimetric analysis of a sample from precipitation reaction. Calculations based on volumetric analysis of a sample using titration.

1.14 Identification of metallic and nonmetallic elements and substances . Acidic and basic properties from the Chemical formula.

Big Idea 2 : Solids , Liquids and Gases


2.1 Explanation of the states of matter on the basis of Inter-molecular forces of attraction,kinetic energy and temperature. Viscosity, surface tension and change in heat for mixing for liquids. Crystalline and amorphous forms of solids.Heating and cooling curves with phase changes.

2.2 Ideal gas laws based on relation between P, V ,n and T, Kinetic molecular theory,Maxwell – Boltzmann distribution curve.

2.3 Real gases deviation from the ideal behavior based on intermolecular interactions.

2.4 Solutions ,Homogenous and Heterogeneous solutions, colloids, seperation techniques for the components of the solutions based on their chemical and physical properties,dissolution process, molarity, dilution chemistry.

2.5 Types of intermolecular forces. London Dispersion forces,polar and non polar molecules, Polar forces and hydrogen bonding,Dipole moment.

2.6 Intermolecular forces and properties of the substance. Boiling point surface tension, capillary action, vapor pressure, viscosity, solubility and deviation from the ideal behavior. Biological reactions affected by the nature and the type of the intermolecular forces like interaction of enzyme with the substrate, Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic regions in proteins.

2.7 Chemical bonding, valence electrons, inert gas configurations, covalent bonding, Ionic bonding, polar covalent bond. Ionic and covalent character in a compound, Bond energies, metallic bonding and delocalization of electrons.

2.8 Lewis diagram, use of VSEPR model to determine molecular geometry,shape, bond angles, dipole moment, bond lengths and bond energies. Limitation of Lewis diagrams. Hybridization sp, sp2 and sp3.Use of hybridization in predicting the molecular geometry and bond angles.

2.9 Molecular orbital theory and understanding of sigma and pi bonds.

2.10 Types of solids, Ionic solids, covalent solids, metallic solids ,and molecular solids.

Big Idea 3 : Chemical Changes


3.1 Types of Chemical reactions and balancing of reactions.

3.2 Writing of the molecular equations, Ionic equations and net ionic equations on the basis of solubility rules.

3.3 Quantitative information from the balanced reaction using stoichiometric calculations, mole concept, Limiting reactant, % yield, determination of molar mass of gases, titrations to know the concentrations in the solutions.

3.4 Acid-Base Reactions in aqueous medium ,Bronsted Acid Base theory, Conjugate acid-base pairs ,strength of Acids and bases and relative strengths of conjugate acid-base pairs.

3.5 Reduction -Oxidation reactions, assigning oxidation numbers, Identification of a reaction as redox reaction and its balancing.

3.6 Identification of a Chemical change on the production of heat, formation of a gas, formation of a precipitate or a color change. Laboratory exercises based on chemical changes.

3.7 Energy changes during a chemical reactions. Exothermic and endothermic reactions and graphical depiction of the processes as energy diagram.

3.8 Chemical energy and electrical energy. Galvanic cell and voltaic cell, representation of cells, Calculations of standard cell potential ,Relation between K, ? Go, Eocell and spontaneity of the reactions, Equilibrium and Eocell, concentration cells ,Qualitative reasoning about the effects of the concentrations on the cell potential. Faraday’s law which is used to determine the stoichiometry of the redox reactions like to calculate the amount of current, time and mass of the metal deposited.


Big Ideas 4 : Chemical Kinetics


4.1 Rate of the reaction, factors responsible for the change in the rate of a reaction, rate constant.

4.2 Rate law, order of a reaction, integrated rate laws. To determine the order of the reaction from the graph of concentration vs time, initial rates of the reactions.

4.3 Rate constant, calculations of the rate constant, units of the rate constant, temperature dependence of the rate constant, Half life for the first order reaction.

4.4 Collision theory and order of the reaction, molecularity of the reaction. Effective collisions and Activation energy barrier ,Arrhenius equation.

4.5 Mechanism of the reactions, reaction intermediates and rate determining step.

4.6 Effect of the catalyst on the rate of the reaction, acid-base catalysis, surface catalysis and enzyme catalysis.


Big Idea 5 : The laws of thermodynamics


5.1 Heat, temperature, kinetic energy, Law of conservation of energy, Relation between work energy and heat.

5.2 Enthalpy, endothermic and exothermic process, specific heat capacity, phase transitions, molar enthalpy of vaporization, molar enthalpy of fusion. Calorimetry and Calculations based on the Calorimetry experiment.

5.3 Bond Enthalpies, Potential energy relation with the atoms or ions and the electrostatic interactions between them. Calculation of the enthalpy of the reactions from bond enthalpies.

5.4 Hess’s law, Enthalpies of formation, application of enthalpies of formation table on the extraction of metal from their oxides.

5.5 Potential energy is associated with the interaction of molecules, as molecules draw near each other, they experience an attractive force. Interactions involved in physical and chemical changes, Non covalent and intermolecular interactions in biological and polymer system.

5.6 Spontaneity of a chemical reaction or physical change on the basis of gibb’s free energy change and entropy.

5.7 Entropy as a measure of dispersal of matter and energy, spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions relation between entropy, enthalpy and Gibb’s free energy change. Use of electricity and light energy for driving a process which are not thermodynamically favored.

5.8 Kinetically controlled or thermodynamically controlled processes. Activation Energy factor for determining if it is kinetically or thermodynamically controlled.

Big Idea 6 : Equilibrium


6.1 Chemical equilibrium, dynamic equilibrium, rate of the forward and reverse reaction, Extent of the reaction from K .Comparison of Q (reaction quotient) with K to know the direction of the reaction.

6.2 Calculations of the equilibrium, concentrations from the ICE Table. Graphical representation of the equilibrium state for simple chemical reactions.

6.3 Effect of change in pressure, temperature volume, concentrations and catalyst on the Chemical equilibrium ,Le chatelier’s principle.

6.4 Acids-Bases ,chemical equilibrium pH, pOH, pKa, pKb, Kw and pKw, Calculations of pH of weak acids and bases using ICE Table,Calculations based on titration, Polyprotic acids and use of titrations curves to evaluate the number of removable protons.

6.5 Concept of buffer, mechanism of the buffer, buffer capacity ,calculations of the pH of the buffer. Preparation of buffer solution of desired pH (including polyprotic acids), Acid-Base indicators and protonation of proteins, pH required for acid catalyzed reaction in organic reactions.

6.6 Solubility of a substance, Ksp, the solubility product. Effect of the pH, common ion and temperature on the solubility of the substance.

6.7 The relation between the Chemical equilibrium constant and Gibb’s free energy change.
K = e -? G/RT Quantitative or Qualitative estimation of the K of the reaction. Exergonic or Endergonic processes.

Beyond the scope of the AP Exam and you will NOT be tested in these topics :

(1)    Exceptions to the Aufbau Principle
(2)    Assignment of quantum numbers to the electron
(3)    Phase diagram
(4)    Calculations of molality, percent by mass and percent by volume.
(5)    Colligative properties
(6)    Weaker hydrogen bonding Hydrogen bonding due to high electronegative elements N, O, F will be tested.
(7)    Crystal shapes or structures
(8)    Use of Formal change to explain why certain molecules do not obey the octet rule.
(9)    Limitations of Lewis dot model
(10)  Molecules orbital diagrams, and filling of orbital diagrams.
(11)  Varieties of crystal lattices for ionic compounds.
(12)  Lewis- acid- Base concepts
(13)  Language of reducing agent and oxidizing agent.
(14)  Labeling electrodes as positive or negative.
(15)  Nernst Equation Calculations. Qualitative reasoning based on the Nernst Equation is the part of the exam.
(16)  Calculations based on Arrhenius equation. Conceptual aspects and interpretation of graphs is the part of the course.
(17)  Calculations of the concentration of each species present in the titration curve for polyprotic acids.
(18)  Calculations of the change in pH due to addition of an acid or a base to a buffer.
(19)  The derivation of the Henderson – Hasselbalch equation.
(20)  Memorization of solubility rules’ other than that all salts of first group ions, ammonium and nitrates are soluble in water.

Study Material for AP Chemistry
1. Chemical Foundations  
1.1 Scientific Methods Open .pdf presentation
1.2 Units of Measurement Open .pdf presentation
1.3 Uncertainty in Measurement Open .pdf presentation
1.4 Significant Figures and Calculations Open .pdf presentation
1.5 Dimensional Analysis Open .pdf presentation

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