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Dr Uma Sharma
Exam Pattern : CBSE class XI Chemistry Exam
Study Topics Class XI Chemistry
- Theory Topics
Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of ChemistryGeneral Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter, laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept and molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula, chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry.
Unit II: Structure of AtomDiscovery of Electron, Proton and Neutron, atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Thompson's model and its limitations. Rutherford's model and its limitations, Bohr's model and its limitations, concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, De Broglie's relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbitals, quantum numbers, shape of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals - Aufbau principle, Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.
Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in PropertiesSignificance of classification, brief history of the development of periodic table, modern periodic law and the present form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements -atomic radii, ionic radii, inert gas radii Ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valency.Nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.
Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular structureValence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond; bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization, involving s,p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only), hydrogen bond.
Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and LiquidsThree states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle's law, Charles law, Gay Lussac's law, Avogadro's law, ideal behaviour, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro's number,ideal gas equation. Deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature,kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State- vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)
Unit VI: Chemical ThermodynamicsConcepts of System and types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics -internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ? U and ? H, Hess's law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Introduction of entropy as a state function, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non - spontaneous processes, criteria for equilibrium. Second law of thermodynamics (brief introduction).
Unit VII: EquilibriumEquilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium - Le Chatelier's principle, ionic equilibrium - ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of poly basic acids, acid strength, concept of pH, Henderson Equation, hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solution, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).
Unit VIII: Redox ReactionsConcept of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, balancing redox reactions, in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number, applications of redox reactions Unit IX: Hydrogen (Period 8) Position of hydrogen in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water, hydrogen peroxide -preparation, reactions and structure and use; hydrogen as a fuel.
Unit X: s -Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 ElementsGeneral introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the firstelement of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses.
Preparation and Properties of Some Important Compounds:Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and Sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. Calcium oxide and Calcium carbonate and industrial uses of lime and limestone, biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.
Unit XI: Some p -Block Elements
General Introduction to p -Block ElementsGroup 13 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron - physical and chemical properties, some important compounds, borax, boric acid, boron hydrides, Aluminium: Reactions with acids and alkalies, uses. Group 14 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first elements Carbon -catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties; uses of some importantcompounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and Zeolites, their uses.
Unit XII: Organic Chemistry -Some Basic Principles and TechniqueGeneral introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radicals, carbocations, carbanions, electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions.
Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons
Classification of Hydrocarbons Aliphatic Hydrocarbons:Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. Alkenes - Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water hydrogen halides (Markonikov's addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition. Alkynes - Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft's alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. Environmental Pollution - air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smog, major atmospheric pollutants, acid rain, ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes, green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategies for control of environment pollution.
Practicals : Marking Scheme
Evaluation Scheme for Examination =====================Marks
Volumetric Analysis=================================== 10
Salt Analysis ======================================== 08
Content Based Experiment ============================== 06
Class Record and Viva ==================================06
TOTAL =====================================30 Marks
Syllabus (Total Periods 60)Micro-chemical methods are available for several of the practical experiments. Wherever possible such techniques should be used:
A. Basic Laboratory Techniques
1 Cutting glass tube and glass rod
2 Bending a glass tube
3 Drawing out a glass jet
4 Boring a cork
B. Characterization and Purification of Chemical Substances
1. Determination of melting point of an organic compound.
2. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound.
3. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following: Alum, copper sulphate, Benzoic acid
C. Experiments based on pH
(i) Any one of the following experiments:
• Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices, soulution of known and varied concentrations of acids, bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator.
• Comparing the pH of solutions of strong and weak acids of same concentration.
• Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.
(ii) Study the pH change by common-ion in case of weak acids and weak bases.
D. Chemical Equilibrium One of the following experiments:
(i) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by increasing/ decreasing the concentration of either ions.
(ii) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H 2 O) 6 ] 2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions.
E. Quantitative Estimation
i) Using a chemical balance.
ii) Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.
iii) Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid.
iv) Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate.
v) Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating it against standard sodium carbonate solution.
F. Qualitative Analysis
(a) Determination of one anion and one cation in a given salt
Cations - Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ ,As 3+ A1 3+ , Fe 3+ Mn 2+ ,Ni 2+ , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ , Mg 2+ , NH 4+
Anions - Co 3 2- , S 2- , SO 3 2- , SO 4 2- , NO - 2 , NO - 3 , C1 - , Br, I - , PO 3- 4 , C 2 O 4 2- , CH 3 COO -
(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)
(b) Detection of -nitrogen, sulphur, chlorine in organic compounds
Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. A Few suggested Projects
• Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.
• Study of the methods of purification of water.
• Testing the hardness, presence of iron, fluoride, chloride etc. Depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any).
• Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on it.
• Study the acidity of different samples of tea leaves.
• Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.
• Study the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.
• Study of acidity of fruit and vegetable juices.Note: Any other investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.