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Online MCAT Chemistry Tutor

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The MCAT Exam and Study Topics

  • About the MCAT Exam
  • Organic Chemistry
  • General Chemistry
  • Bio-Chemistry
  • Mathematical Concepts

Prerequisite College courses:

  • BC:First-semester biochemistry,
  • BIO: First and second semester of introductory biology
  • GC:First and second semester of general chemistry,
  • OC:First and second semester Organic chemistry,
  • PHY:First and second semester physics,
  • PSY: one semester of introductory psychology
  • SOC: one semester of introductory sociology

The MCAT exam has four test sections:

  • Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems
  • Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior
  • Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems
  • Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills

Exam is designed to test students on the following Ten Fundamental Concepts:

Fundamental Concept 1:

Important biomolecules which can control structure and functions of cells  and how they pass on the information to maintain life.

The topics of this concept are:

  • Structure and function of proteins and their constituent amino acids
  • Transmission of genetic information from the gene to the protein
  • Transmission of heritable information from generation to generation and the processes that increase genetic diversity
  •  Principles of bioenergetics and fuel molecule metabolism

Fundamental Concept 2:

Understanding of organized assemblies of molecules , cells, tissues , organs  and how they interact to carry out the functions of living Organism.

The topics of this concept are:

  • Assemblies of molecules, cells, and groups of cells within single cellular and multicellular organisms
  • The structure, growth, physiology, and genetics of prokaryotes and viruses
  •  Processes of cell division, differentiation, and specialization

Fundamental  Concept 3:

Integrated functioning of tissues and organs to make a balance in stable internal and ever changing external environments in multicellular organs.

The topics of this concept are:

  • Structure and functions of the nervous and endocrine systems and ways in which these systems coordinate the organ systems
  • Structure and integrative functions of the main organ systems

Fundamental  Concept 4:

Transport of materials  sending signals and responding to changes.

The topics of this concept are:

  • Translational motion, forces, work, energy, and equilibrium in living systems
  • Importance of fluids for the circulation of blood, gas movement, and gas exchange
  •  Electrochemistry and electrical circuits and their elements
  •  How light and sound interact with matter
  •  Atoms, nuclear decay, electronic structure, and atomic chemical behavior

Fundamental  Concept 5:

Molecular level Control through Chemical interactions and reactions on the working of living organisms.

The topics of this concept are:

  • Unique nature of water and its solutions
  • Nature of molecules and intermolecular interactions
  • Separation and purification methods
  • Structure, function, and reactivity of biologically-relevant molecules
  •  Principles of chemical thermodynamics and kinetics

Fundamental  Concept 6:

Biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors influence the ways that individuals perceive, think about, and react to the world.

The topics of this concept are:

  • Sensing the environment
  • Making sense of the environment
  •  Responding to the world

Fundamental  Concept 7:

Biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors influence behavior and behavior change.

The topics of this concept are:

  • Individual influences on behavior
  •  Social processes that influence human behavior
  •  Attitude and behavior change

Fundamental  Concept 8:

Psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors influence the way we think about ourselves and others, as well as how we interact with others.

The topics of this concept are:

  • Self-identity
  •  Social thinking
  •  Social interactions

Fundamental  Concept 9:

Cultural and social differences influence well-being.

The topics of this concept are:

  • Understanding social structure
  • Demographic characteristics and processes

Fundamental  Concept 10:

Social stratification and access to resources influence well-being.

The topics of this concept are:

  • Social inequality
The first three sections are organized around 10 foundational concepts or “big ideas” in the sciences and draw from the following disciplines in year-long, introductory courses in: biology, organic chemistry, general chemistry, and physics, and from first semester introductory courses in biochemistry, psychology, and sociology.

Four different scientific inquiry and reasoning skills are based on Scientific method .

  • Skill 1:  A Good Knowledge of Scientific Concepts and Principles and how to apply them in Solving problems.
  • Skill 2.  A good understanding of theories,  reasoning and predictions based on Scientific concepts.
  • Skill 3  :Designing a research plan ,its execution and Collection of data.
  • Skill4 : Representation and Interpretation of data and making conclusion to Solve the problem.

Detailed descriptions of each Section:

The MCAT exam has four test sections:

  • Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems                
    • A total of 59 questions consisting of:10 passage-based sets of questions
      • 4–6 questions per set
      • 15 independent questions
    • Time : 95 minutes
    • % Distribution of different courses.
      • BC- 25%
      • BIO- 5%
      • GC- 30%
      • OC-15%
      • PHY- 25%
    • Fundamental  Concepts:
      • Fundamental  Concept 4, 40%
      • Fundamental  Concept 5, 60%
    • Scientific Inquiry and Reasoning Skill
      • Skill 1, 35%
      • Skill 2, 45%
      • Skill 3, 10%
      • Skill 4, 10%

  • Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems                
    • A total of 59 questions consisting of 10 passage-based sets of questions
      • 4–6 questions per set
      • 15 independent questions
    • Time : 95 minutes
    • % Distribution of different courses.
      • BC- 25%
      • BIO- 65%
      • GC- 5%
      • OC-5%
    • Fundamental  Concepts:
      • Fundamental  Concept 1, 55%
      • Fundamental  Concept 2, 20%
      • Fundamental  Concept 3, 25%
    • Scientific Inquiry and Reasoning Skill
      • Skill 1, 35%
      • Skill 2, 45%
      • Skill 3, 10%
      • Skill 4, 10%
  • Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior              
    • A total of 59 questions consisting of:10 passage-based sets of questions
        • 4–6 questions per set
        • 15 independent questions
    • Time :95 minutes
    • % Distribution of different courses.
      • Introductory psychology, 65%**
      • Introductory sociology, 30%
      • Introductory biology, 5%
    • Fundamental  Concepts:
      • Foundational Concept 6, 25%
      • Foundational Concept 7, 35%
      • Foundational Concept 8, 20%
      • Foundational Concept 9, 15%
      • Foundational Concept 10, 5%
    • Scientific Inquiry and Reasoning Skill
      • Skill 1, 35%
      • Skill 2, 45%
      • Skill 3, 10%
      • Skill 4: 10%
  • Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills     
    • A total of 53 questions ( questions are all passage-based)consisting of:
      • 9 passage-based sets of questions, 5–7 questions per set
    • Time :90 minutes
    • %Distribution of Questions will be as follows:
      • Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skill:
        • Foundations of Comprehension, 30%
        • Reasoning Within the Text, 30%
        • Reasoning Beyond the Text, 40%
      • Passage Content:
        • Humanities, 50%
        • Social Sciences, 50%
    • Humanities
      • Passages in the humanities are drawn from a variety of disciplines, including (but not limited to):
        • Architecture
        • Art
        • Dance
        • Ethics
        • Literature
        • Music
        • Philosophy
        • Popular Culture
        • Religion
        • Theater
        • Studies of Diverse Cultures
    • Social Sciences
      • Social sciences passages are also drawn from a variety of disciplines, including (but not limited to):
        • Anthropology
        • Archaeology
        • Economics
        • Education
        • Geography
        • History
        • Linguistics
        • Political Science
        • Population Health
        • Psychology
        • Sociology
        • Studies of Diverse Cultures2

Exam Scoring

  • Separate score for each of the four sections of the MCAT exam,
  • Total score for each section 
    •  lowest possible score of 118
    •  highest possible score of  132. 
  •  There is no penalty for guessing on the MCAT exam.
  • Your total score is the sum of the four individual section scores and will range from 472 to 528.

MCAT Exam in order section wise:

Section

# of Questions

 Time Allotted

Examinee Agreement

 

8 minutes

Tutorial (optional)

 

10 minutes

Chemical and Physical Foundations of Biological Systems

 59

 95 minutes

Break (optional)

 

 10 minutes

Critical Analysis and Reasoning Skills

 53

 90 minutes

Mid-Exam Break  (optional)

 

 30 minutes

Biological and Biochemical Foundations of Living Systems

 59

 95 minutes

Break (optional)

 

 10 minutes

Psychological, Social, and Biological Foundations of Behavior

 59

 95 minutes

Void Question  

 

 5 minutes

Satisfaction Survey (optional)

 

 5 minutes

Total Content Time

 

 6 hours | 15 minutes

Total “Seated” Time*

 

 Approx. 7 hours | 33 minutes


Official site :

https://www.aamc.org/


MCAT Scheduling & Registration System

https://students-residents.aamc.org/applying-medical-school/taking-mcat-exam/

Separations and Purifications (OC, BC)

  • Extraction: distribution of solute between two immiscible solvents
  • Distillation
  • Chromatography:
    • Basic principles involved in separation process
    •  Column chromatography
    • Gas-liquid chromatography
    • High pressure liquid chromatography
    • Paper chromatography
    • Thin-layer chromatography
  • Separation and purification of peptides and proteins (BC)
  • Racemic mixtures, separation of enantiomers (OC)

The Three-Dimensional Protein Structure (BC)

  • Quaternary structure of proteins (BIO, BC)
  • Conformational stability  
    • Hydrophobic interactions
    • Solvation layer (entropy)
  • Denaturing and folding

Nucleic Acid Structure and Function (BIO, BC)

  • Description
  • Nucleotides and nucleosides
    •  Sugar phosphate backbone
    •   Pyrimidine, purine residues
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): double helix, Watson–Crick model of DNA structure
  • Base pairing specificity: A with T, G with C
  • Function in transmission of genetic information (BIO)
  • DNA denaturation, reannealing, hybridization

Carbohydrates (BC, OC)

  • Description
    • Nomenclature and classification, common names
    • Absolute configuration
    • Cyclic structure and conformations of hexoses
    • Epimers and anomers
  • Hydrolysis of the glycoside linkage
  • Keto-enol tautomerism of monosaccharides
  • Disaccharides (BC)
  • Polysaccharides (BC)

Lipids (BC, OC)

  • Description, Types
    • Storage
      •   Triacyl glycerols
      • Free fatty acids: saponification
    • Structural
      • Phospholipids and phosphatids
      • Sphingolipids (BC)
      • Waxes
    • Signals/cofactors
      • Fat-soluble vitamins
      • Steroids
      • Prostaglandins (BC)

Aldehydes and Ketones (OC)

  •   Description
    • Nomenclature
    •  Physical properties
  •   Important reactions
    • Nucleophilic addition reactions at C=O bond
      • Acetal, hemiacetal
      • Imine, enamine
      • Hydride reagents
      • Cyanohydrin
    • Oxidation of aldehydes
    • Reactions at adjacent positions: enolate chemistry
      • Keto-enol tautomerism, alpha racemization
      • Aldol condensation, retro-aldol
      • Kinetic versus thermodynamic enolate
  • General principles
    • Effects of substituents on reactivity of C =O ; Steric hinderance
    • Acidity of α-H ; Carbanions.

Alcohols (OC)

  • Description
    •  Nomenclature
    • Physical properties (acidity, hydrogen bonding)
    • Important reactions
      • Oxidation
      • Substitution reactions: SN1 or SN2
      • Protection of alcohols
      • Preparation of mesylates and tosylates
  • Carboxylic Acids (OC)
    • Description
      • Nomenclature
      • Physical properties
      • Important reactions
        • Carboxyl group reactions
          • Amides (and lactam), esters (and lactone), anhydride formation
          • Reduction
          • Decarboxylation
        • Reactions at 2-position, substitution

Acid Derivatives (Anhydrides, Amides, Esters) (OC)

  • Description
    • Nomenclature
    • Physical properties
    • Important reactions ooo
      • Nucleophilic substitution
      • Transesterification
      • Hydrolysis of amides
  • General principles
    • Relative reactivity of acid derivatives
    • Steric effects
    • Electronic effects
    • Strain, for example beta lactams Strain,
  • Phenols (OC, BC)
    • Oxidation and reduction (e.g., hydroquinones, ubiquinones): biological 2e– redox centers

Polycyclic and Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds (OC, BC)

  • Biological aromatic heterocycles

Electrophoresis

Quantitative analysis

Chromatography

Size-exclusion

Ion-exchange

Affinity

Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins (OC, BC)

Amino acids: description

Absolute configuration at the α position

Dipolar ions

Classification 

Synthesis of alpha amino acids, O C

Peptides and proteins: reactions

General Principles

  • Primary structure of proteins
  • Secondary structure of proteins
  • Tertiary structure of proteins: role of proline, cystine, hydrophobic bonding
  • Isoelectric point
  • Acidic or basic
  • Hydrophilic or hydrophobic
  • Strecker Synthesis
  • Gabriel Synthesis
  •  Sulfur linkage for cysteine and cystine
  • Peptide linkage: polypeptides and proteins
  • Hydrolysis (BC)

Atomic Nucleus (PHY, GC)  

  • Atomic number, atomic weight
  • Neutrons, protons, isotopes
  • Nuclear forces, binding energy
  • Radioactive decay
  • α, β, γ decay
  • Half-life, exponential decay, semi-log plots
  • Mass spectrometer

Electronic Structure (PHY, GC)

  • Orbital structure of hydrogen atom, principal quantum number n, number of electrons per orbital (GC)
  • Ground state, excited states
  • Absorption and emission line spectra
  • Use of Pauli Exclusion Principle
  • Paramagnetism and diamagnetism
  • Conventional notation for electronic structure (GC)
  • Bohr atom
  • Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
  • Effective nuclear charge (GC)
  • Photoelectric effect

The Periodic Table - Classification of Elements into Groups by Electronic Structure (GC)

  • Alkali metals
  • Alkaline earth metals: their chemical characteristics
  • Halogens: their chemical characteristics
  • Noble gases: their physical and chemical characteristics
  • Transition metals
  • Representative elements
  • Metals and non-metals
  • Oxygen group
  • The Periodic Table - Variations of Chemical Properties with Group and Row (GC)
  • Valence electrons
  • First and second ionization energy
  • Definition
  • Prediction from electronic structure for elements in different groups or rows
  • Electron affinity
  • Definition
  • Variation with group and row
  • Electronegativity
  • Definition
  • Comparative values for some representative elements and important groups
  • Electron shells and the sizes of atoms
  • Electron shells and the sizes of ions

Stoichiometry (GC)

  • Molecular weight
  • Empirical versus molecular formula
  • Metric units commonly used in the context of chemistry
  • Description of composition by percent mass
  • Mole concept, Avogadro’s number NA
  • Definition of density
  • Oxidation number
  • Common oxidizing and reducing agents
  • Disproportionation reactions
  • Description of reactions by chemical equations
  • Conventions for writing chemical equations
  • Balancing equations, including redox equations
  • Limiting reactants
  • Theoretical yields

Covalent Bond (GC)

  • Lewis Electron Dot formulas
  • Resonance structures
  • Formal charge
  • Lewis acids and bases
  • Partial ionic character
  • Role of electronegativity in determining charge distribution
  • Dipole Moment
  • σ and π bonds
  • Hybrid orbitals: sp3
  • , sp2
  • , sp and respective geometries
  • Valence shell electron pair repulsion and the prediction of shapes of molecules (e.g.,
  • NH3, H2O, CO2)
  • Structural formulas for molecules involving H, C, N, O, F, S, P, Si, Cl
  • Delocalized electrons and resonance in ions and molecules
  • Multiple bonding
  • Effect on bond length and bond energies
  • Rigidity in molecular structure
  • Liquid Phase - Intermolecular Forces (GC)
  • Hydrogen bonding
  • Dipole Interactions
  • Van der Waals’ Forces (London dispersion forces)

Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions – Thermochemistry, Thermodynamics (GC, PHY)

  • Thermodynamic system – state function
  • Zeroth Law – concept of temperature
  • First Law − conservation of energy in thermodynamic processes
  • PV diagram: work done = area under or enclosed by curve (PHY)
  • Second Law – concept of entropy
  • Entropy as a measure of “disorder”
  • Relative entropy for gas, liquid, and crystal states
  • Measurement of heat changes (calorimetry), heat capacity, specific heat
  • Heat transfer – conduction, convection, radiation (PHY)
  • Endothermic/exothermic reactions (GC)
  • Enthalpy, H, and standard heats of reaction and formation
  • Hess’ Law of Heat Summation
  • Bond dissociation energy as related to heats of formation (GC)
  • Free energy: G (GC)
  • Spontaneous reactions and ΔG° (GC)
  • Coefficient of expansion (PHY)
  • Heat of fusion, heat of vaporization
  • Phase diagram: pressure and temperature

Rate Processes in Chemical Reactions - Kinetics and Equilibrium (GC)

  • Reaction rate
  • Dependence of reaction rate on concentration of reactants
  • Rate law, rate constant
  • Reaction order
  • Rate-determining step
  • Dependence of reaction rate upon temperature
  • Activation energy
  • Activated complex or transition state
  • Interpretation of energy profiles showing energies of reactants, products,
  • activation energy, and ΔH for the reaction
  • Use of the Arrhenius Equation
  • Kinetic control versus thermodynamic control of a reaction
  • Catalysts

Equilibrium in reversible chemical reactions

  • Law of Mass Action
  • Equilibrium Constant
  • Application of Le Châtelier’s Principle
  • Relationship of the equilibrium constant and ΔG°

Acid/Base Equilibria (GC, BC)

  • Brønsted–Lowry definition of acid, base
  • Ionization of water
  • Kw, its approximate value (Kw = [H+ ][OH–] = 10–14 at 25°C, 1 atm)
  • Definition of pH: pH of pure water
  • Conjugate acids and bases (e.g., NH4 + and NH3)
  • Strong acids and bases (e.g., nitric, sulfuric)
  • Weak acids and bases (e.g., acetic, benzoic)
  • Dissociation of weak acids and bases with or without added salt
  • Hydrolysis of salts of weak acids or bases
  • Calculation of pH of solutions of salts of weak acids or bases
  • Equilibrium constants Ka and Kb: pKa, pKb
  • Buffers
  • Definition and concepts (common buffer systems)
  • Influence on titration curves

Ions in Solutions (GC, BC)

  • Anion, cation: common names, formulas and charges for familiar ions (e.g., NH4+
  •  ammonium,PO4  3– phosphate, SO4 2– sulfate)
  • Hydration, the hydronium ion

Solubility (GC)

  • Units of concentration (e.g., molarity)
  • Solubility product constant; the equilibrium expression Ksp
  • Common-ion effect, its use in laboratory separations
  • Complex ion formation
  • Complex ions and solubility

Titration (GC)

  • Indicators
  • Neutralization
  • Interpretation of the titration curves
  • Redox titration

Electrochemistry (GC)

  • Electrolytic cell
  • Electrolysis
  • Anode, cathode
  • Electrolyte
  • Faraday’s Law relating amount of elements deposited (or gas liberated) at an electrode to
  • current
  • Electron flow; oxidation, and reduction at the electrodes
  • Galvanic or Voltaic cells
  • Half-reactions
  • Reduction potentials; cell potential
  • Direction of electron flow
  • Concentration cell
  • Batteries
  • Electromotive force, Voltage
  • Lead-storage batteries
  • Nickel-cadmium batteries
  •  Concentration cell: direction of electron flow, Nernst equation

Gases

  • Absolute temperature, (K) Kelvin Scale
  • Pressure, simple mercury barometer
  • Molar volume at 0°C and 1 atm = 22.4 L/mol
  • Ideal gas
  • Definition
  • Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT
  • Boyle’s Law: PV = constant
  • Charles’ Law: V/T = constant
  • Avogadro’s Law: V/n = constant
  • Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
  • Heat capacity at constant volume and at constant pressure (PHY)
  • Boltzmann’s Constant (PHY)
  • Deviation of real gas behavior from Ideal Gas Law
  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative (Van der Waals’ Equation)
  • Partial pressure, mole fraction

Solutions :

  • Osmosis
  • Colligative properties; osmotic pressure (GC)
  • Henry’s Law (GC)

Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins (OC, BC)

  • Description
    • Absolute configuration at the alpha position.
    • Amino acids as dipolar ions
    • Classifications
      • Acidic or basic
      • Hydrophobic or hydrophilic
    • Reactions
      • Sulfur linkage for cysteine and cystine
      • Peptide linkage: polypeptides and proteins
      • Hydrolysis
 

Protein Structure (BIO, BC, OC)

  • Structure
    • Primary structure of proteins (1◦)
    • Secondary structure of proteins (2◦)
    • Tertiary structure of proteins; role of proline, cystine, hydrophobic bonding (3◦)
    • Quaternary structure of proteins (BIO, BC)(4◦)
  • Conformational stability
    • Denaturing and folding
    • Hydrophobic interactions
    • Solvation layer (entropy) (BC)
  • Separation techniques o
    • Isoelectric point
    • Electrophoresis
 

Non-Enzymatic Protein Function (BIO, BC)

  • Binding (BC)
  • Immune system
  • Motors
 

Enzyme Structure and Function (BIO, BC)

  • Function of enzymes in catalyzing biological reactions
  • Enzyme classification by reaction type
  • Reduction of activation energy
  • Substrates and enzyme specificity
  • Active Site Model
  • Induced-fit Model
  • Mechanism of catalysis
    • Cofactors
    • Coenzymes
    • Water-soluble vitamins
  • Effects of local conditions on enzyme activity
 

Control of Enzyme Activity (BIO, BC)

  • Kinetics
    • General (catalysis)
    • Michaelis–Menten
    • Cooperativity
  • Feedback regulation
  • Inhibition – types
    • Competitive
    • Non-competitive
    • Mixed (BC)
    • Uncompetitive (BC)
  • Regulatory enzymes ooo
    • Allosteric enzymes
    • Covalently-modified enzymes
    • Zymogen
 
Nucleic Acid Structure and Function (BIO, BC)
  • Description
  • Nucleotides and nucleosides
    • Sugar phosphate backbone
    • Pyrimidine, purine residues
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): double helix, Watson–Crick model of DNA structure
  • Base pairing specificity: A with T, G with C
  • Function in transmission of genetic information (BIO)
  • DNA denaturation, reannealing, hybridization
 

Principles of Bioenergetics (BC, GC)

  • Bioenergetics/thermodynamics
    • Free energy and the equilibrium constant
      • Equilibrium constant
      • Relationship of the equilibrium constant and ∆G◦
    • Concentration
      • Le Châtelier’s Principle
    • Endothermic/exothermic reactions
    • Free energy: G
    • Spontaneous reactions and the change in ∆G◦
    • Phosphoryl group transfers and ATP
      • ATP hydrolysis ∆G◦ much less than
      • ATP group transfers
  • Biological oxidation-reduction
    • Half-reactions
    • Soluble electron carriers
    • Flavoproteins
 

Carbohydrates (BC, OC)

  • Description
    • Nomenclature and classification, common names
    • Absolute configuration
    • Cyclic structure and conformations of hexoses
    • Epimers and anomers
  • Hydrolysis of the glycoside linkage
  • Keto-enol tautomerism of monosaccharides
  • Disaccharides (BC)
  • Polysaccharides (BC)
 

Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway (BIO, BC)

  • Glycolysis (aerobic), substrates and products o
  • Feeder pathways: glycogen, starch metabolism
  • Fermentation (anaerobic glycolysis)
  • Gluconeogenesis (BC)
  • Pentose phosphate pathway (BC)
  • Net molecular and energetic results of respiration processes
 

Principles of Metabolic Regulation (BC)

  • Regulation of metabolic pathways (BIO, BC)
    • Maintenance of a dynamic steady state
  • Regulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis
  • Metabolism of glycogen
  • Regulation of glycogen synthesis and breakdown o
    • Allosteric and hormonal control
  • Analysis of metabolic control
 

Principles of Metabolic Regulation (BC)

  • Regulation of metabolic pathways (BIO, BC) o
    • Maintenance of a dynamic steady state
  • Regulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis
  • Metabolism of glycogen
  • Regulation of glycogen synthesis and breakdown
    • Allosteric and hormonal control
  • Analysis of metabolic control
 

Metabolism of Fatty Acids and Proteins (BIO, BC)

  • Description of fatty acids (BC)
  • Digestion, mobilization, and transport of fats
  • Oxidation of fatty acids oo
  • Saturated fats
  • Unsaturated fats
  • Ketone bodies (BC)
  • Anabolism of fats (BIO)
  • Non-template synthesis: biosynthesis of lipids and polysaccharides (BIO)
  • Metabolism of proteins (BIO)
 

Oxidative Phosphorylation (BIO, BC)

  • Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, substrates and products, general features of the pathway
  • Electron transfer in mitochondria ooo
    • NADH, NADPH
    • Flavoproteins
    • Cytochromes
  • ATP synthase, chemiosmotic coupling o
    • Proton motive force
  • Net molecular and energetic results of respiration processes
  • Regulation of oxidative phosphorylation
  • Mitochondria, apoptosis, oxidative stress (BC)
 

Hormonal Regulation and Integration of Metabolism (BC)

  • Higher level integration of hormone structure and function
  • Tissue specific metabolism
  • Hormonal regulation of fuel metabolism
  • Obesity and regulation of body mass
 

Plasma Membrane (BIO, BC)

  • General function in cell containment
  • Composition of membranes
    • Lipid components (BIO, BC, OC)
      • Phospholipids (and phosphatids)
      • Steroids
      • Waxes
    • Protein components
    • Fluid mosaic model
  • Membrane dynamics
  • Solute transport across membranes
    • Thermodynamic considerations
    • Osmosis
      • Colligative properties; osmotic pressure (GC)
    • Passive transport
    • Active transport
      • Sodium/potassium pump
    • Membrane channels
    • Membrane potential
    • Membrane receptors
    • Exocytosis and endocytosis
    • Intercellular junctions (BIO) ooo
    • Gap junctions
    • Tight junctions
    • Desmosomes
 

Biosignalling (BC)

  • Oncogenes, apoptosis
  • Gated ion channels oo
    • Voltage gated
    • Ligand gated
  • Receptor enzymes
  • G protein-coupled receptors

 

 

Lipids (BC, OC)

  • Description, Types
    • Storage
      •   Triacyl glycerols
      • Free fatty acids: saponification
    • Structural
      • Phospholipids and phosphatids
      • Sphingolipids (BC)
      • Waxes
      • Terpenes and terpenoids
      • Steroids
    • Signals/cofactors
      • Fat-soluble vitamins
      • Steroids
      • Prostaglandins (BC)

 

 

Mathematical Concepts and Techniques For MCAT

  • Interpretation and analysis of  linear, semilog, and log-log scales and calculate slopes from data found in figures, graphs, and tables
  • A general understanding of significant digits and the use of reasonable numerical estimates in performing measurements and calculations
  • Use metric units, including converting units within the metric system and between metric and English units (conversion factors will be provided when needed), and dimensional analysis (using units to balance equations)
  • Perform arithmetic calculations involving the following: probability, proportion, ratio, percentage, and square-root estimations
  • A general understanding (Algebra II−level) of exponentials and logarithms (natural and base 10), scientific notation, and solving simultaneous equations
  • A general understanding of the following trigonometric concepts: definitions of basic (sine, cosine, tangent) and inverse (sin‒1, cos‒1, tan‒1) functions; sin and cos values of 0°,90°, and 180°; relationships between the lengths of sides of right triangles containing angles of 30°, 45°, and 60°
  • A general understanding of vector addition and subtraction and the right-hand rule (knowledge of dot and cross products is not required)

Note also that an understanding of calculus is not required, and a periodic table will be provided during the exam.