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Free Chemistry Help
I provide Free Chemistry Help upto High School Level. Just place your questions at the Free Chemistry Help Forum and they will be answered in no time.
Chemistry Quizzes
 I provide Practice questions in Chemistry to the students on this website. Detailed quizzes with answers have been compiled for all the courses offered here. For Chemistry Quizzes, please click here.
Useful Resources

Important Chemical Reactions

Displacement Reactions and Net Ionic Reactions
What My Students Have to Say

You have made Chemistry so simple for my daughter. She says you are even better than her professor and that her classmates would like to have you as her professor.

Meera, 2006California(parent)

I have gained immense confidence after studying with the tutors on this website. I recommend the tutors here to everyone who needs online tutoring and homework help.

Sarah Hamilton(Math)

My exams had gone off so well after my sessions for MCAT exams with you. I have thoroughly understood Aromatic Reactions, Alkenes and Alkynes after studying with you. Thank you so much. You are the best Chemistry Tutor I have ever had.

Yashika Patel, Boston(MCAT )

You are the best tutor that I have come across in my life. Keep up the good work.

Nick(MCAT)

Dear Uma, We want to thank you for the all hard work you did teaching Felix chemistry: Thanks to your dedicated tutoring he was able to score 760 on his Chemistry SAT test . We are very happy with the test results.

Alex and Katrina Glozman (parents of SAT/AP/general chemistry)

Hi Uma
I got my sat score today. I received a 760 for chemistry. Thank you very much for all your teachings.Under your guidance I will be successful in chemistry..

Felix(SAT Chemistry)

My wife and I will like to thank you for helping our son do so well at AP Chemistry. Although he got a 4, given where you picked him up and the total lack of teaching in his school, the exam outcome was a realistic one.
Mrs. Sharma. my son holds you in very high regard. He describes you as "One of the best teacher in the World " and he says so with a lot of conviction.
As parents we are grateful to you for helping him change his attitude to Chemistry from total fear and intimidation to love for the subject.

Mr P Maitra(Father of AP chemistry student)

Wanted to let you know that Mallika got a 5 on her AP Chemistry exam. Thank you for your efforts.

Radhika Madhusudan mother of AP student

Hello Uma, I just want to let you know that I got accepted to Midwestern University- Chicago College of Pharmacy (my preference) and I also received an invitation to interview at University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy as well! Both of these schools are the best in my area. I am beyond excited and overjoyed. Of course, it would not have been possible without your assistance and support in organic chemistry. My professors thought that I should pursue advanced organic chemistry or even PhD's- they did not know I worked with a great tutor by my side and that it had made all the difference for me to have met you. My success in my organic chemistry class spilled over to other science classes that I took. I plan to continue working hard and perhaps, very soon, I will need another session with you! Thank you very much again! Sincerely, Cat

Catphuong Nguyen(pharmacy student)

Dear Dr. Sharma, I want you to know that I see you as a mentor. So far, in my life, it has been my mentors who have really helped me, guided me, and I know will mold me even beyond the scope of my career. I will always remember to thank you for all you do. Thank you for all of your help and guidance, Dr. Sharma. Hope you feel better and I will get Sitopladi and Honey :) Kindest Regards, Vinay Sehgal

Vinay Sehgal (organic chemistry student)

Hello Uma, Thank you for your session this morning. My daughter said it was very informative and she learnt well. She said she liked the fact that you asked her questions. Please make sure she understands her basics well, even if it takes more of your time. I have bought a package for 5 hours. As discussed this morning, please schedule the lesson for 8:00 -10:00 am EST tomorrow 3/5. Thank you again for your time and efforts. Vidya

Vidya (mother of Deepika organic chemistry student)

I got my scores-in general chemistry my correct answers were 26 out of 30 questions so my DAT score is 20 out of 30. in organic chem my correct answers were 23 out of 30 questions so my DAT score is 19 out of 30. my average DAT score is 19 out of 30...not bad. we have to see what is the cut off of new york university. it shoud be around 18 or 19 or 20..according to the office people in the university. will come to know in 2013 spring thanks to you for everything..Icouldn't have scored even this much without your help. The overall exam was not that easy..there were some pretty hard questions.specially the PAT section was quite hard when I travel to india this december I will get all the DAT books for you. barrons,kaplan,dat destroyer. thanks again ,will talk when u are free. I was called for interview. will get the result on 3 weeks

Jaspreet (DAT student)

hello uma ji, The cut off of DAT at the new york university has gone down to 17. i have a score of 19 . still waiting for my result. my application got submitted after the deadline due to some reasons. but hoping for the best. hope you are still rocking at ur lectures and wishing you luck as always

Jaspreet(DAT student)

Hi I am Shah here.I am taking regular tutoring from chemtopper for organic I from uma sharma(tutor).Today I appeared in my final examination and my professor just scanned my answers and told me to get enroll in organic II .This is never heard in USA that a professor asking a student to join a course like this.I think this is something awesome in a student's career .I am really thankful to chemtopper and specially to Uma Sharma (my preferred tutor) who really helped me a lot during my examination time.She helped me understanding organic chemistry in much simpler way by her unique way of teaching.I would like to continue with her as my preferred tutor for organic chemistry II.

Shah (2009)(organic chemistry student)

I had been a novice at Chemistry when I joined Organic Chemistry-I. In my first exam I had got ‘F’ grade and was on the verge of leaving Organic Chemistry when I found you. You have made Organic Chemistry so simple for me. I am now the topper of my class having scored 100% in my exams !!!

Kim Dewitt(organic chemistry student)

In my DAT I was in the top 93 percentile of the US for that section, which means I scored higher than 93% of all test takers. it was all thanks to you Can't tell you how much you helped.

Neha Garge(DAT student)

Hello I would like to thank a very articulate tutor Miss Uma Sharma specifically for helping me with Organic chemistry. Her knowledge of subject is amazing. The way she deals with the topics reveals her deep understanding of the subject. Her encouragement to delve deeper into the subject keeps me flocking into her session. She helps me understand my assignments well so that i am able to work independently. She was never lost for words when questioned, and i always had answers. Miss Uma Sharma is indeed an asset as a tutor. I praise her dedication and genuine love for her profession that was evident in the way she taught.

SHAH Colorado, USA(organic chemistry)

Ms.Uma was very helpful. The active teaching when she asks the student gives the student practice and ensures their understanding which I found helpful.

Neije(Moitreyee)IB student

Uma, Qian transfer from 11th grade to 12th grade on chemistry subject, she was assessed 2 days ago. When I got the news, I want to thank you again for being a very good chem teacher.

Helen( Quian's mother)

I was so happy when I heard my daughter passed AP Bio & Chem both with 4s. Her effort has paid off. I credit Chemtopper for tutoring her. My daughter's school wasn't able to offer AP classes, and I wasn't able to find tutors who taught AP in English in China, so I turned to online AP courses, and I found Chemtopper. Chemtopper's team is wonderful; both our Bio and Chem tutors are PhDs and very experienced tutors. We went through all the content in 3 months and passed the exams with satisfactory results.

Helen Feng(Qian's mother)

just to let you know that Aarti got an offer for a Pharmacy course in London ,King's colleges.She is very excited... she got all the offers from UK thanks for all yr help you gave to aarti she feels comfortable with chemistry

Renuka Patel(mother)

Really good. Tutor was well prepared and explained concepts by using different examples. The sessions are saved so they can be revised afterwards as well. ** HIGHLY RECOMMENDED **

Jamal Ahmed IB chem student

HI Uma ji, I got admission into DDS programme at NYU. Thanks a ton for helping me through and motivating me all the time I wish good luck to you . Your teaching will help make students with a strong foundation God bless you

Jaspreet (DAT student)

Dear Dr. Sharma, Would like to finish chapter 3 in tomorrow's session. I make sure to review notes after our sessions and then go back to re-read the Kaplan book. You are absolutely right: without a complete understanding of the topic, it will be very difficult to grasp the material. Thank you for helping me understand the material so thoroughly.

Vinay Sehgal (MCAT student ))

Dear Uma, My wife and I want to thank you once again for the excellent teaching that you provide to our younger son Thomas. Thanks to your dedicated teaching he, while still in 10th grade, was able to score a 5 in AP Chemistry. You helped him build a solid foundation in inorganic chemistry, and now continue to teach him organic chemistry. He is happy to be your student and we are happy you are his teacher. Sincerely, Ekaterina and Alex Glozman

Alex and Katrina Glozman 2007(parents)

Hi Dr. Sharma, I'm reviewing Orgo Part 2. Everything you taught me is coming back very easily. Once again, thank you! Orgo is 25% of the Biological Sciences section and every point counts. Chemistry is 50% of the Physical Science section so I am making sure to keep up in that area too. Hope you have a safe trip. See you soon. Kind Regards, Vinay Sehgal

Vinay Sehgal (MCAT student ))

A great tutor who enjoys chemistry as well as teaching it. Her teaching style is very understandable and easy. Neither have i had such a good chemistry tutor or have I understood chemistry as much as i did before I started classes with Uma. Couldn't ask for a better chemistry tutor!

Sai Muttavarapu-2013

Great job teaching Organic Chemistry specifically mechanisms of reactions. Thank you.

Felix

After the session I finally understood resonance structures of organic compounds. This is a high yield topic on the MCAT. I wish my college professor could teach as well as Uma.

Felix

I'm in the IB program, and having these online sessions to review for my exams are perfect! Thanks a lot!

Dusan

Really good. Tutor was well prepared and explained concepts by using different examples. The sessions are saved so they can be revised afterwards as well. ** HIGHLY RECOMMENDED **

Jamal Ahmed

It's great that you are so patient in explaining things multiple times and giving extra examples to work out to make sure that I understand the points. Thanks for all your help!

Sunitha 2012

Great session, I really like how you're challenged on your knowledge, it keeps you on your toes while learning - thanks!!

Trevor

very good lecture. mrs. uma know where to hit the chord

Jim 2013

the lecture was awesome. never thought i could solve organic chemistry with ease . it has been made possible under the guidance mrs. uma sharma..a wonderful teacher who has a very fine understanding of the needs of her students .

Jaspreet2011

I can tell you, the help is so valuable. I was ranging from 74-82%, everything is 90+ now waiting for the chem marks to be posted from last week. amazing tutoring in chemistry

Trevor Poole

Hello ms. Sharma, I wanted to let you know that my ap chemistry exam on monday went extremely well. :) Thank you so much for all the tutoring and help you gave me. I am very pleased with your teaching.... I wish you were my chemistry teacher! My chemistry teacher here was recently diagnosed with ovarian cancer. This is the third time she has gotten the cancer back and there is no guarantee for recovery. But i am very grateful to have come across your website.... I have survived chemistry because of you. Your love for chemistry has inspired me to pursue biochemistry, since i realized through you chemistry is a subject to enjoy and love. Its not just about learning the concepts but actually enjoying them! I am 100% going to continue with your website and teaching for general chemistry and organic chemistry in college. I will have also recommended your website to lots of my friends here. Once again, and never the last, thank you so very much for helping me and guiding me through chemistry. I miss having your sessions at night (over here, for you its morning :). But i will definitely see you in the summer with some more tutoring to prepare me for college! Thanking you, Yours sincerely, Anusha Sent from my iPad

Anusha (AP chem student)

hello ms. sharma! i got my ap scores today and i made a 4 out of 5 on ap chemistry!!!! thank you so much ms. sharma for helping me understand and enjoy chemistry, not just only learning it. i was literally in tears when i saw my score. i have claimed credit for general chemistry I and i will be taking general chemistry II. i have not scheduled for my classes yet.... but i will definitely join chemtopper.com again for chemistry, math and physics. thank you so much ms. sharma....... and i will meet you very soon! yours sincerely, Anusha

Anusha (AP chem student)

Hello Miss Uma, My name is Vivian Jaworsky. I was referenced to you by Dr. Glozman and his sons (Felix and Tomas) who were extremely satisfied with their progress as a result of your tutoring.I wanted to inquire about the tutoring services you provide for both high school chemistry and high school physics. In the past two years I took both courses and I wanted to move on to AP Physics and AP Chemistry in order to prepare for studying pre-med in college. I thought that it would be a good idea to refresh the two basic courses and find out where my weak areas in them are in order to be better prepared to take the AP courses. I was wondering how I could go about doing this with you and how the sessions for both work. Thank You.

Vivian Jaworsky- inquiry

I GOT A 100% I had to send you a picture ms. Sharma. See you next class! Regards, Anusha

Anusha Bontha (2014 general chemistry student)


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MCAT Chemistry Exam

Date of Exam.

The MCAT exams are held throughout the year. Registration for the exam must be done well in advance. Please visit the AAMC website for the complete schedule.

MCAT Exam Grades

The Medical College Admission Test@ (MCAT@) is a standardized, multiple-choice examination designed to assess the examinee's problem solving, critical thinking, writing skills, and knowledge of science concepts and principles prerequisite to the study of medicine. Scores are reported in Verbal Reasoning, Physical Sciences, Writing Sample, and Biological Sciences.

Physical Sciences and Biological Sciences

The Physical Sciences section consists pf papers in the following subjects:

  • General Chemistry
  • Physics
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Biological Sciences

The Physical Sciences section assesses problem-solving ability in general chemistry and physics, and the Biological Sciences section evaluates these abilities in the areas of biology and organic chemistry. Each section contains 7 passage-based sets of questions and 13 independent questions. Each passage-based set consists of four to seven questions.

The questions, both passage-based and independent, evaluate your knowledge of basic physical and biological science concepts and your facility at problem solving using these concepts. They do not test your ability to memorize scientific facts.

Study Packages

The study packages for MCAT Chemistry Exam have been designed to cover the complete MCAT syllabus for Chemistry. The sessions in Physics are adjusted from this package itself. The package can be customized as per your requirements.

Study Material.The study material for the MCAT Chemistry Exam is used by me for comprehension of the subject in detail. I use my own presentations which have been prepared keeping the requirements of the students in mind.

Chemistry Practice Quizzes. Ialso provideChemistry Quizzesfor MCAT Chemistry Exam which students can attempt in their own time and discuss with me during the sessions. Please feel free toContact Mefor any clarifications.

Study Topics.The study topics which are covered in theGeneral Chemistry,Organic ChemistryandPhysicsfor the MCAT exam have been given out below.


Atomic Structure
Quiz on Atomic Structure
  1. Chemical and Physical means Atomic masses
    • Chemical and Physical
    • Chemical and Physical
  2. Electron energy levels means Atomic masses
    • Chemical and Physical
    • Chemical and Physical
  3. Electron energy levels means Atomic masses
    • Chemical and Physical
    • Chemical and Physical
Study Topics MCAT Exam : General Chemistry

ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND PERIODIC TABLE

A. Electronic Structure

  1. Orbital structure of hydrogen atom, principal quantum number n, number of electrons per orbital
  2. Ground state, excited states
  3. Absorption and emission spectra
  4. Quantum numbers l, m, s, and number of electrons per orbital
  5. Common names and geometric shapes for orbitals s, p, d
  6. Conventional notation for electronic structure
  7. Bohr atom
  8. Effective nuclear charge

B. The Periodic Table: Classification of Elements into Groups by Electronic Structure; Physical and Chemical Properties of Elements

  1. Alkali metals
  2. Alkaline earth metals
  3. Halogens
  4. Noble gases
  5. Transition metals
  6. Representative elements
  7. Metals and nonmetals
  8. Oxygen group

C. The Periodic Table: Variations of Chemical Properties with Group and Row

  1. Electronic structure
    1. representative elements
    2. noble gases
    3. transition metals
  2. Valence electrons
  3. First and second ionization energies
    1. definition
    2. prediction from electronic structure for elements in different groups or rows
  4. Electron affinity
    1. definition
    2. variations with group and row
  5. Electronegativity
    1. definition
    2. comparative values for some representative elements and important groups
  6. Electron shells and the sizes of atoms

THERMODYNAMICS AND THERMOCHEMISTRY

A. Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions: Thermochemistry

  1. Thermodynamic system, state function
  2. Endothermic and exothermic reactions
    1. enthalpy H, standard heats of reaction and formation
    2. Hess’s law of heat summation
  3. Bond dissociation energy as related to heats of formation
  4. Measurement of heat changes (calorimetry), heat capacity, specific heat capacity.
  5. Entropy as a measure of “disorder,” relative entropy for gas, liquid, and crystal states
  6. Free energy G
  7. Spontaneous reactions and ?G

B. Thermodynamics

  1. Zeroth law (concept of temperature)
  2. First law (?E = q + w, conservation of energy)
  3. Equivalence of mechanical, chemical,electrical, and thermal energy units
  4. Second law (concept of entropy)
  5. Temperature scales, conversions
  6. Heat transfer (conduction, convection, radiation)
  7. Heat of fusion, heat of vaporization
  8. PV diagram (work done = area under or enclosed by curve)

STOICHIOMETRY
  1. Molecular weight
  2. Empirical formula versus molecular formula
  3. Metric units commonly used in the context of chemistry
  4. Description of composition by percent mass
  5. Mole concept, Avogadro’s number
  6. Definition of density
  7. Oxidation number
    1. common oxidizing and reducing agents
    2. disproportionation reactions
    3. redox titration
  8. Description of reactions by chemical equations
    1. conventions for writing chemical equations
    2. balancing equations including redox equations
    3. limiting reactants
    4. theoretical yields

RATE PROCESSES IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS: KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM
  1. Reaction rates
  2. Rate law, dependence of reaction rate on concentrations of reactants
    1. rate constant
    2. reaction order
  3. Rate-determining step
  4. Dependence of reaction rate on temperature
    1. activation energy
      1. activated complex or transition state
      2. interpretation of energy profiles showing energies of reactants and products, activation energy, ΔH for the reaction
    2. Arrhenius equation
  5. Kinetic control versus thermodynamic
  6. Catalysts, enzyme catalysis
  7. Equilibrium in reversible chemical reactions
    1. law of mass action
    2. the equilibrium constant
    3. application of Le Châtelier’s principle
  8. Relationship of the equilibrium constant and ?G

SOLUTION CHEMISTRY

A. Ions in Solution

  1. Anion, cation (common names, formulas, and charges for familiar ions
  2. Hydration, the hydronium ion

B. Solubility

  1. Units of concentration (e.g.,molarity)
  2. Solubility product constant, the equilibrium expression
  3. Common-ion effect, its use in laboratory separations
  4. Complex ion formation
  5. Complex ions and solubility
  6. Solubility and pH

ELECTROCHEMISTRY
  1. Electrolytic cell
    1. electrolysis
    2. anode, cathode
    3. electrolytes
    4. Faraday’s law relating amount of elements deposited (or gas liberated) at an electrode to current
    5. electron flow, oxidation and reduction at the electrodes
  2. Galvanic (voltaic) cell
    1. half-reactions
    2. reduction potentials, cell potential
    3. direction of electron flow

ACIDS AND BASES

A. Electronic Structure

  1. Brønsted–Lowry definition of acids and bases
  2. Ionization of water
    1. Kw, its approximate value
    2. pH definition, pH of pure water
  3. Conjugate acids and bases
  4. Strong acids and bases (common examples; e.g., nitric, sulfuric)
  5. Weak acids and bases (common examples; e.g., acetic, benzoic)
    1. dissociation of weak acids and bases with or without added salt
    2. hydrolysis of salts of weak acids or bases
    3. calculation of pH of solutions of weak acids or bases
  6. Equilibrium constants Ka and Kb
  7. Buffers
    1. definition, concepts (common buffer systems)
    2. influence on titration curves

B. Titration

  1. Indicators
  2. Neutralization
  3. Interpretation of titration curves

PHASES AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA

A. Gas Phase

  1. Absolute temperature, K
  2. Pressure, simple mercury barometer
  3. Molar volume at 0°C and 1 atm = 22.4 L/mol
  4. Ideal gas
    1. qualitative
    2. ideal gas law (PV = nRT)
      1. Boyles law
      2. Charles’s law
      3. Avogadro’s law
  5. definition
  6. Deviation of real-gas behavior from idealgas law
    1. qualitative
    2. quantitative (van der Waals equation)
  7. Partial pressure, mole fraction
  8. Dalton’s law relating partial pressure to composition

B. Intermolecular Forces

  1. Hydrogen bonding
  2. Dipole interactions
  3. London dispersion forces

C. Phase Equilibria

  1. Phase changes, phase diagrams
  2. Freezing point, melting point, boiling point, condensation point
  3. Molality
  4. Colligative properties
    1. vapor pressure lowering (Raoults law)
    2. boiling point elevation
    3. freezing point depression
    4. osmotic pressure
  5. Colloids
  6. Henry’s law

BONDING

A. The Ionic Bond (Electrostatic Forces Between Ions)

  1. Electrostatic energy
  2. Electrostatic energy
  3. Electrostatic force

B. The Covalent Bond

  1. Sigma and pi bonds
    1. hybrid orbitals (sp3, sp2, sp, and respective geometries)
    2. valence shell electron-pair repulsion VSEPR) theory, predictions of shapes of moleculesn
  2. Lewis electron dot formulas
    1. resonance structures
    2. formal charge
  3. Partial ionic character
    1. ole of electronegativity in determining charge distribution
    2. dipole moment
Study Topics MCAT Exam : Organic Chemistry
THE COVALENT BOND
A. Sigma and Pi Bonds
1. Hybrid orbitals (sp3, sp2, sp, and their     respective geometries)
2. Valence shell electron-pair repulsion     (VSEPR) theory, predictions of shapes of     molecules
3. Structural formulas
4. Delocalized electrons and resonance in ions and molecules
B. Multiple Bonding
1. Its effect on bond length and bond energies
2. Rigidity in molecular structure
C. Stereochemistry of Covalently Bonded      Molecules
1. Isomers
     a. constitutional isomers
     b. stereoisomers (e.g. diastereomers,       enantiomers, cis and  trans isomers)
     c. conformational isomers
2. Polarization of light, specific rotation
3. Absolute and relative configuration
     a. conventions for writing R and S      forms
     b. conventions for writing E and Z      forms
4. Racemic mixtures, separation of      enantiomers
MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND SPECTRA
A. Absorption Spectroscopy
1. Infrared region
     a. intramolecular vibrations and      rotations
     b. recognizing common  characteristic      group absorptions, fingerprint region
2. Visible region
     a. absorption in visible region      yielding complementary color
     b. effect of structural changes on      absorption
3. Ultraviolet region
     a. electron and nonbonding electron       transitions
     b. conjugated systems
B. Mass Spectrometry
     1. Mass-to-charge ratio (m/z)
     2. Molecular ion peak
C. 1H NMR Spectroscopy
     1. Protons in a magnetic field,       equivalent  protons
     2. Spin–spin splitting
SEPARATIONS AND PURIFICATIONS
A. Extraction (Distribution of Solute Between Two Immiscible Solvents)
B. Distillation
C. Chromatography (Basic Principles Involved  in Separation Process)
    1. Gas–liquid chromatography
    2. Paper chromatography
    3. Thin-layer chromatography
D. Recrystallization (Solvent Choice from      Solubility Data)
HYDROCARBONS
A. Alkanes
1. Description
         a. nomenclature
         b. physical properties
2. Important reactions
         a. combustion
         b. substitution reactions with         halogens, etc.
3. General principles
         a. stability of free radicals, chain               reaction mechanism, inhibition
         b. ring strain in cyclic compounds
         c. bicyclic molecules
AMINES
1. Description
        a. nomenclature
        b. stereochemistry, physical         properties
2. Important reactions
        a. amide formation
        b. reaction with nitrous acid
        c. alkylation
        d. Hofmann elimination
3. General principles
        a. basicity
        b. stabilization of adjacent         carbocations
        c. effect of substituents on basicity        of aromatic amines
OXYGEN-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS
A. Alcohols
1. Description
     a. nomenclature
     b. physical properties
2. Important reactions
     a. substitution reactions
     b. oxidation
     c. pinacol rearrangement in         polyhydroxyalcohols, synthetic uses
     d. protection of alcohols
     e. reactions with SOCl2 and PBr3
     f. preparation of mesylates and tosylates
     g. esterification
     h. inorganic esters
3. General principles
     a. hydrogen bonding
     b. acidity of alcohols compared to other          classes of oxygen-containing          compounds
     c. effect of chain branching on physical          properties
B. Aldehydes and Ketones
1. Description
       a. nomenclature
       b. physical properties
2. Important reactions
       a. nucleophilic addition reactions at        C=O bond
           i. acetal, hemiacetal
           ii. imine, enamine
        b. reactions at adjacent positions
           i. haloform reactions
           ii. aldol condensation
           iii. oxidation
        c. 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds, internal              hydrogen bonding
        d. keto–enol tautomerism
        e. organometallic reagents
        f. Wolff–Kishner reaction
        g. Grignard reagents
3. General principles
       a. effect of substituents on reactivity of            C=O; steric hindrance
       b. acidity of α hydrogens; carbanions
       c. unsaturated carbonyl compounds, their        resonance structures
C. Carboxylic Acids
1. Description
      a. nomenclature
      b. physical properties and solubility
2. Important reactions
      a. carboxyl group reactions
          i. nucleophilic attack
          ii. reduction
          iii. decarboxylation
          iv. esterificationd
      b. reactions at α position
          i. halogenation
          ii. substitution reactions
3. General principles
      a. hydrogen bonding
      b. dimerization
      c. acidity of the carboxyl group
      d. inductive effect of substituents
      e. resonance stability of carboxylate        anion
D. Acid Derivatives (Acid Chlorides,     Anhydrides, Amides, Esters)
1. Description
       a. nomenclature
       b. physical properties
2. Important reactions
       a. preparation of acid derivatives
       b. nucleophilic substitution
       c. Hofmann rearrangement
       d. transesterification
       e. hydrolysis of fats and glycerides            (saponification)
       f. hydrolysis of amides
3. General principles
       a. relative reactivity of acid derivatives
       b. steric effects
       c. electronic effects
       d. Strain
E. Keto Acids and Esters
1. Description
        a. nomenclature
2. Important reactions
        a. decarboxylation
        b. acetoacetic ester synthesis
3. General principles
        a. acidity of α hydrogens
        b. keto–enol tautomerism
BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES
A. Carbohydrates
1. Description
      a. nomenclature, classification,           common names
      b. absolute configurations
      c. cyclic structure and conformations      of hexoses
      d. epimers and anomers
2. Hydrolysis of the glycoside linkage
3. Reactions of monosaccharides
B. Amino Acids and Proteins
1. Description
     a. a absolute configuration(s)a. a          absolute configuration(s)
     b. amino acids classified as dipolar           ions
     c. classification
           i. acidic or basic
            ii. hydrophobic or hydrophilic
2. Important reactions
      a. peptide linkage
      b. hydrolysis
3. General principles
      a. 1º structure of proteins
      b. 2º structure of proteins
C. Lipids
1. Description, structure
      a. steroids
      b. terpenes
      c. triacyl glycerols
      d. free fatty acids
D. Phosphorus Compounds
1. Description
      a. structure of phosphoric acids        (anhydrides, esters)
2. Important reactions
      a. Wittig reaction
Study Topics MCAT Exam : Physics
TRANSLATIONAL MOTION
1. Dimensions (length or distance, time)
2. Vectors, components
3. Vector addition
4. Speed, velocity (average and     instantaneous)
5. Acceleration
6. Freely falling bodies
FORCE AND MOTION, GRAVITATION
1. Center of mass
2. Newton’s first law
3. Newton’s second law
4. Newton’s third law
5. Concept of a field
6. Law of gravitation
7. Uniform circular motion
8. Centripetal force
9. Weight
10. Friction (static and kinetic)
11. Motion on an inclined plane
12. Analysis of pulley systems
13. Force
EQUILIBRIUM AND MOMENTUM
A. Equilibrium
1. Concept of force, units
2. Translational equilibrium
3. Rotational equilibrium
4. Analysis of forces acting on an object
5. Newton’s first law
6. Torques, lever arms
7. Weightlessness
B. Momentum
1. Momentum = mv
2. Impulse = Ft
3. Conservation of linear momentum
4. Elastic collisions
5. Inelastic collisions
WORK AND ENERGY
A. Work
1. Derived units, sign conventions
2. Path independence of work done in     gravitational field
3. Mechanical advantage
4. Work–energy theorem
5. Power
B. Energy
1. Kinetic energy
2. Potential energy
a. gravitational, local
b. spring
c. gravitational, general
3. Conservation of energy
4. Conservative forces
5. Power, units
WAVES AND PERIODIC MOTION
A. Periodic Motion
1. Amplitude, period, frequency
2. Phase
3. Hooke’s law
4. Simple harmonic motion, displacement as a sinusoidal function of time
5. Motion of a pendulum
6. General periodic motion (velocity, amplitude)
B. Wave Characteristics
1. Transverse and longitudinal waves
2. Wavelength, frequency, wave speed
3. Amplitude and intensity
4. Superposition of waves, interference, wave addition
5. Resonance
6. Standing waves (nodes, antinodes)
7. Beat frequencies
8. Refraction and general nature of diffraction
SOUND
1. Production of sound
2. Relative speed of sound in solids, liquids and gases
3. Intensity of sound (decibel units, log scale)
4. Attenuation
5. Doppler effect (moving sound source or  observer, reflection of sound from a moving object)
6. Pitch
7. Resonance in pipes and strings
8. Harmonics
9. Ultrasound
FLUIDS AND SOLIDS
A. Fluids
1. Density, specific gravity
2. Archimedes’ principle (buoyancy)
3. Hydrostatic pressure
      a. Pascal’s law
      b. pressure versus depth
4. Poiseuille flow (viscosity)
5. Continuity equation
6. Concept of turbulence at high velocities
7. Surface tension
8. Bernoulli’s equation
B. Solids
1. Density
2. Elastic properties (elementary properties)
3. Elastic limit
4. Thermal expansion coefficient
5. Shear
6. Compression
ELECTROSTATICS AND ELECTROMAGNETISM
A. Electrostatics
1. Charges, conductors, charge conservation
2. Insulators
3. Coulomb’s law
4. Electric field
      a. field lines
      b. field due to charge distribution
5. Potential difference, absolute potential at      point in space
6. Equipotential lines
7. Electric dipole
      a. definition of dipole
      b. behavior in electric field
      c. potential due to dipole
8. Electrostatic induction
9. Gauss’s law
B. Magnetism
1. Definition of the magnetic field B
2. Existence and direction of force on charge     moving in magnetic field
C. Electromagnetic Radiation (Light)
1. Properties of electromagnetic radiation      (general properties only)
      a. radiation velocity equals constant c in       vacuo
      b. radiation consists of oscillating      electric and magnetic fields that are      mutually  perpendicular to each other      and to the propagation direction
2. Classification of electromagnetic spectrum     (radio, infrared, UV, X-rays, etc.)
ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
A. Circuit Elements
1. Current ( sign conventions, units)
2. Battery, electromotive force, voltage
3. Terminal potential, internal resistance of     battery
4. Resistance
      a. Ohm’s law (I = V/R)
      b. resistors in series
      c. resistors in parallel
      d. resistivity
5. Capacitance
      a. concept of parallel-plate capacitor
      b. energy of charged capacitor
      c. capacitors in series
      d. capacitors in parallel
      e. dielectrics
6. Discharge of a capacitor through a resistor
7. Conductivity theory
B. Circuits
  1. Power in circuits
C. Alternating Currents and Reactive Circuits
  1. Root-mean-square current
  2. Root-mean-square voltage
LIGHT AND GEOMETRICAL OPTICS
A. Light (Electromagnetic Radiation)
1. Concept of interference, Young’s     double-slit experiment
2. Thin films, diffraction grating, single-slit      diffraction
3. Other diffraction phenomena, X-ray      diffraction
4. Polarization of light
5. Doppler effect (moving light source or      observer)
6. Visual spectrum, color
      a. energy
      b. lasers
B. Geometrical Optics
1. Reflection from plane surface (angle of     incidence equals angle of reflection)
2. Refraction, refractive index n, Snell’s     law 
3. Dispersion (change of index of     refraction with     wavelength)
4. Conditions for total internal reflection
5. Spherical mirrors
      a. mirror curvature, radius, focal length
      b. use of formula (1/p) + (1/q) = 1/f with           sign conventions
      c. real and virtual images
6. Thin lenses
      a. converging and diverging lenses,           focal length
      b. use of formula (1/p) + (1/q) = 1/f with           sign conventions
      c. real and virtual images
      d. lens strength, diopters
      e. lens aberration
7. Combination of lenses
8. Ray tracing
9. Optical instruments
ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
A. Atomic Structure and Spectra
1. Emission spectrum of hydrogen (Bohr     model)
      a. quantized energy levels for electrons
      b. calculation of energy emitted or          absorbed when an electron changes           energy levels
B. Atomic Nucleus
1. Atomic number, atomic weight
2. Neutrons, protons, isotopes
3. Nuclear forces
4. Radioactive decay (α, β, γ, half-life, stability, exponential decay, semilog plots)
5. General nature of fission
6. General nature of fusion
7. Mass deficit, energy liberated, binding energy

Study Material for AP Chemistry
1. Chemical Foundations
1.1 Scientific Methods Open .pdf presentation
1.2 Units of Measurement Open .pdf presentation
1.3 Uncertainty in Measurement Open .pdf presentation
1.4 Significant Figures and Calculations Open .pdf presentation
1.5 Dimensional Analysis Open .pdf presentation


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