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CBSE Chemistry Class – XII

Get Better Grades- Study CBSE Chemistry with Dr Uma Sharma.

  1. 1.

    Gain clear understanding of basics of topics so that complete comprehension is achieved.

  2. 2.

    Very interactive sessions customized as per needs of the student

  3. 3.

    All Sessions are recorded for review any time later. Review the recorded  sessions from your I-pad or your mobile also.

  4. 4.

    Practice Quizzes based on CBSE Chemistry Syllabus to hone your skills after every session.

Take a look at What the parents of students have to say or Check out the Session Reviews- by students.


Dr Uma Sharma

Student Reviews-3397
Total Sessions-5287

My Teaching Style


For best comprehension, I like to divide my session into two parts:

Teaching Using Digitized Content

I use my own training content which has been specially prepared keeping the needs of students in mind. I focus upon clearing the basics of the subject first before moving on. Detailed explanations provided in a easy to understand manner forms the key to understanding.

Chemistry Quizzes

At the end of each session I go over the quizzes on the topic with the student which ensures correct assimilation by the student and any gaps in knowledge that may be there are clarified. I also provide Chemistry Quizzes for CBSE Chemistry Exam which students can attempt in their own time and discuss with me during the sessions. Please feel free to Contact Me for any clarifications.

A sample presentation and its associated quiz is given below. Please feel free to go over the presentation and attempt the quiz.

group-tutoring

Study Topics

The study topics which are covered in the CBSE Chemistry exam have been given out below.

Exam Pattern : CBSE class XII Chemistry Exam

The CBSE class XII Chemistry exams consists of two parts : Theory (70 marks) and Practicals (30 marks). The theory exam has a time limit of 3 hours.



Distribution of Marks : Class XII (Theory)

Unit No. Title Marks
Unit I Solid State 4
Unit II Solutions 5
Unit III Electrochemistry 5
Unit IV Chemical Kinetics 5
Unit V Surface Chemistry 4
Unit VI General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements 3
Unit VII p -Block Elements 8
Unit VIII d -and f -Block Elements 5
Unit IX Coordination Compounds 3
Unit X Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 4
Unit XI Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 4
Unit XII Aldehydes, Ketons and Carboxylic Acids 6
Unit XIII Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen 4
Unit XIV Biomolecules 4
Unit XV Polymers 3
Unit XVI Chemistry in Everyday Life 3
  Total : 70
 

Study Topics Class XII Chemistry

  • Theory Topics
  • Practicals
  • Project

 

The theoretical aspects of Chemistry syllabus for Class XII th consists  of the following topics which are covered  in detail during Online Tutoring Sessions

Unit I: Solutions

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.

Unit II: Solutions

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, van't Hoff factor.

Unit III: Electrochemistry

Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell -electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

Unit V: Surface Chemistry

Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic , lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.

Unit VI : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

Unit VII: p -Block Elements

Group -15 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogen preparation properties & uses ; compounds of nitrogen, preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (Structure only) ; Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides PCl3 , PC l and oxoacids (elementary idea only).5

Group 16 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties,dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphure -allotropic forms; compounds of sulphure: Preparation properties and uses of sulphur-dioxide, sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; oxoacids of sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals - metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2CrO and KMnO4.27

Lanthanoids -

Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactvity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Actinoids

Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereo isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).

Unit X : Haloalkanes and Haloarenes. (Periods 12)

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C -X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation. Haloarenes: Nature of C -X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only. Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform freons, DDT.

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties( of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses

Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids 

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophillic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes: uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; us

UnitXIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides -will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit XIV: Biomolecules

Carbohydrates -Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose,
glycogen) importance.
Proteins -Elementary idea of ? - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones -Elementary idea excluding structure.
Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

Unit XV: Polymers

Classification -natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life

Chemicals in medicines -analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials,
antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
Chemicals in food -preservations, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
Cleansing agents-soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

 

Practicals
Evaluation Scheme for Examination Marks
Volumetric Analysis 10
Salt Analysis 8
Content Based Experiment 6
Class record, project work and viva 6
Total 30

PRACTICAL SYLLABUS

  1. Surface Chemistry
    1. Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol
      Lyophilic sol - starch, egg albumin and gum
      Lyophobic sol - aluminium hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, arsenous sulphide.
    2. Dialysis of sol-prepared in (a) above.
    3. Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of different oils.
  2. Chemical Kinetics
    1. Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid.
    2. Study of reaction rates of any one of the following:
      1. Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions.
      2. Reaction between potassium iodate, (KIO3) and sodium sulphite: (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).
  3. Thermochemistry
    Any one of the following experiments
    1. Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.
    2. Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH).
    3. Determination of enthaply change during interaction (Hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform.
  4. Electrochemistry
    Variation of cell potential in Zn/Zn2+|| Cu2+/Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature.
  5. Chromatography
    1. Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.
    2. Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided).
  6. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds
    1. Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum.
    2. Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.
  7. Preparation of Organic Compounds
    Preparation of any one of the following compounds
    1. Acetanilide
    2. Di -benzal acetone
    3. p-Nitroacetanilide
    4. Aniline yellow or 2 - Naphthol aniline dye.
  8. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds:
    Unsaturation, alcoholic, phenolic, aldehydic, ketonic, carboxylic and amino (Primary) groups.
  9. Characteristic tests of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs.
  10. Determination of concentration/ molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of:
    1. i) Oxalic acid,
    2. Ferrous ammonium sulphate
      (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).
  11. Qualitative analysis
    Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt.
    Cation - Pb2+, Cu2+, As3+, , Fe3+,Mn2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Mg2+, NH+4
    Anions - Co2-3, S2-, SO2-3, SO2-4, NO-2, NO-3, Cl-, Br-, I-, PO3-4, C2O2-4, CH3COO.

(Note: Insoluble salts excluded)

 

PROJECT

Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.

A few suggested Projects.

  • Study of the presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening.
  • Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
  • Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation, effect of temperature, etc.
  • Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature, concentration, time etc.)
  • Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and effect of pH and temperature on it. Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour, gram flour, potato juice, carrot juice etc.
  • Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed), Ajwain (carum), Illaichi (cardamom).
  • Study of common food adulterants in fat, oil, butter, sugar, turmeric power, chilli powder and pepper.

    Note: Any investigatory project, which involves about 10 periods of work, can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.
       



Study Material for CBSE Chemistry
1. Chemical Foundations  
1.1 Scientific Methods Open .pdf presentation
1.2 Units of Measurement Open .pdf presentation
1.3 Uncertainty in Measurement Open .pdf presentation
1.4 Significant Figures and Calculations Open .pdf presentation
1.5 Dimensional Analysis Open .pdf presentation