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Free Chemistry Help
I provide Free Chemistry Help upto High School Level. Just place your questions at the Free Chemistry Help Forum and they will be answered in no time.
Chemistry Quizzes
 I provide Practice questions in Chemistry to the students on this website. Detailed quizzes with answers have been compiled for all the courses offered here. For Chemistry Quizzes, please click here.
Useful Resources

Important Chemical Reactions

Displacement Reactions and Net Ionic Reactions
What My Students Have to Say

You have made Chemistry so simple for my daughter. She says you are even better than her professor and that her classmates would like to have you as her professor.

Meera, 2006California(parent)

I have gained immense confidence after studying with the tutors on this website. I recommend the tutors here to everyone who needs online tutoring and homework help.

Sarah Hamilton(Math)

My exams had gone off so well after my sessions for MCAT exams with you. I have thoroughly understood Aromatic Reactions, Alkenes and Alkynes after studying with you. Thank you so much. You are the best Chemistry Tutor I have ever had.

Yashika Patel, Boston(MCAT )

You are the best tutor that I have come across in my life. Keep up the good work.

Nick(MCAT)

Dear Uma, We want to thank you for the all hard work you did teaching Felix chemistry: Thanks to your dedicated tutoring he was able to score 760 on his Chemistry SAT test . We are very happy with the test results.

Alex and Katrina Glozman (parents of SAT/AP/general chemistry)

Hi Uma
I got my sat score today. I received a 760 for chemistry. Thank you very much for all your teachings.Under your guidance I will be successful in chemistry..

Felix(SAT Chemistry)

My wife and I will like to thank you for helping our son do so well at AP Chemistry. Although he got a 4, given where you picked him up and the total lack of teaching in his school, the exam outcome was a realistic one.
Mrs. Sharma. my son holds you in very high regard. He describes you as "One of the best teacher in the World " and he says so with a lot of conviction.
As parents we are grateful to you for helping him change his attitude to Chemistry from total fear and intimidation to love for the subject.

Mr P Maitra(Father of AP chemistry student)

Wanted to let you know that Mallika got a 5 on her AP Chemistry exam. Thank you for your efforts.

Radhika Madhusudan mother of AP student

Hello Uma, I just want to let you know that I got accepted to Midwestern University- Chicago College of Pharmacy (my preference) and I also received an invitation to interview at University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy as well! Both of these schools are the best in my area. I am beyond excited and overjoyed. Of course, it would not have been possible without your assistance and support in organic chemistry. My professors thought that I should pursue advanced organic chemistry or even PhD's- they did not know I worked with a great tutor by my side and that it had made all the difference for me to have met you. My success in my organic chemistry class spilled over to other science classes that I took. I plan to continue working hard and perhaps, very soon, I will need another session with you! Thank you very much again! Sincerely, Cat

Catphuong Nguyen(pharmacy student)

Dear Dr. Sharma, I want you to know that I see you as a mentor. So far, in my life, it has been my mentors who have really helped me, guided me, and I know will mold me even beyond the scope of my career. I will always remember to thank you for all you do. Thank you for all of your help and guidance, Dr. Sharma. Hope you feel better and I will get Sitopladi and Honey :) Kindest Regards, Vinay Sehgal

Vinay Sehgal (organic chemistry student)

Hello Uma, Thank you for your session this morning. My daughter said it was very informative and she learnt well. She said she liked the fact that you asked her questions. Please make sure she understands her basics well, even if it takes more of your time. I have bought a package for 5 hours. As discussed this morning, please schedule the lesson for 8:00 -10:00 am EST tomorrow 3/5. Thank you again for your time and efforts. Vidya

Vidya (mother of Deepika organic chemistry student)

I got my scores-in general chemistry my correct answers were 26 out of 30 questions so my DAT score is 20 out of 30. in organic chem my correct answers were 23 out of 30 questions so my DAT score is 19 out of 30. my average DAT score is 19 out of 30...not bad. we have to see what is the cut off of new york university. it shoud be around 18 or 19 or 20..according to the office people in the university. will come to know in 2013 spring thanks to you for everything..Icouldn't have scored even this much without your help. The overall exam was not that easy..there were some pretty hard questions.specially the PAT section was quite hard when I travel to india this december I will get all the DAT books for you. barrons,kaplan,dat destroyer. thanks again ,will talk when u are free. I was called for interview. will get the result on 3 weeks

Jaspreet (DAT student)

hello uma ji, The cut off of DAT at the new york university has gone down to 17. i have a score of 19 . still waiting for my result. my application got submitted after the deadline due to some reasons. but hoping for the best. hope you are still rocking at ur lectures and wishing you luck as always

Jaspreet(DAT student)

Hi I am Shah here.I am taking regular tutoring from chemtopper for organic I from uma sharma(tutor).Today I appeared in my final examination and my professor just scanned my answers and told me to get enroll in organic II .This is never heard in USA that a professor asking a student to join a course like this.I think this is something awesome in a student's career .I am really thankful to chemtopper and specially to Uma Sharma (my preferred tutor) who really helped me a lot during my examination time.She helped me understanding organic chemistry in much simpler way by her unique way of teaching.I would like to continue with her as my preferred tutor for organic chemistry II.

Shah (2009)(organic chemistry student)

I had been a novice at Chemistry when I joined Organic Chemistry-I. In my first exam I had got ‘F’ grade and was on the verge of leaving Organic Chemistry when I found you. You have made Organic Chemistry so simple for me. I am now the topper of my class having scored 100% in my exams !!!

Kim Dewitt(organic chemistry student)

In my DAT I was in the top 93 percentile of the US for that section, which means I scored higher than 93% of all test takers. it was all thanks to you Can't tell you how much you helped.

Neha Garge(DAT student)

Hello I would like to thank a very articulate tutor Miss Uma Sharma specifically for helping me with Organic chemistry. Her knowledge of subject is amazing. The way she deals with the topics reveals her deep understanding of the subject. Her encouragement to delve deeper into the subject keeps me flocking into her session. She helps me understand my assignments well so that i am able to work independently. She was never lost for words when questioned, and i always had answers. Miss Uma Sharma is indeed an asset as a tutor. I praise her dedication and genuine love for her profession that was evident in the way she taught.

SHAH Colorado, USA(organic chemistry)

Ms.Uma was very helpful. The active teaching when she asks the student gives the student practice and ensures their understanding which I found helpful.

Neije(Moitreyee)IB student

Uma, Qian transfer from 11th grade to 12th grade on chemistry subject, she was assessed 2 days ago. When I got the news, I want to thank you again for being a very good chem teacher.

Helen( Quian's mother)

I was so happy when I heard my daughter passed AP Bio & Chem both with 4s. Her effort has paid off. I credit Chemtopper for tutoring her. My daughter's school wasn't able to offer AP classes, and I wasn't able to find tutors who taught AP in English in China, so I turned to online AP courses, and I found Chemtopper. Chemtopper's team is wonderful; both our Bio and Chem tutors are PhDs and very experienced tutors. We went through all the content in 3 months and passed the exams with satisfactory results.

Helen Feng(Qian's mother)

just to let you know that Aarti got an offer for a Pharmacy course in London ,King's colleges.She is very excited... she got all the offers from UK thanks for all yr help you gave to aarti she feels comfortable with chemistry

Renuka Patel(mother)

Really good. Tutor was well prepared and explained concepts by using different examples. The sessions are saved so they can be revised afterwards as well. ** HIGHLY RECOMMENDED **

Jamal Ahmed IB chem student

HI Uma ji, I got admission into DDS programme at NYU. Thanks a ton for helping me through and motivating me all the time I wish good luck to you . Your teaching will help make students with a strong foundation God bless you

Jaspreet (DAT student)

Dear Dr. Sharma, Would like to finish chapter 3 in tomorrow's session. I make sure to review notes after our sessions and then go back to re-read the Kaplan book. You are absolutely right: without a complete understanding of the topic, it will be very difficult to grasp the material. Thank you for helping me understand the material so thoroughly.

Vinay Sehgal (MCAT student ))

Dear Uma, My wife and I want to thank you once again for the excellent teaching that you provide to our younger son Thomas. Thanks to your dedicated teaching he, while still in 10th grade, was able to score a 5 in AP Chemistry. You helped him build a solid foundation in inorganic chemistry, and now continue to teach him organic chemistry. He is happy to be your student and we are happy you are his teacher. Sincerely, Ekaterina and Alex Glozman

Alex and Katrina Glozman 2007(parents)

Hi Dr. Sharma, I'm reviewing Orgo Part 2. Everything you taught me is coming back very easily. Once again, thank you! Orgo is 25% of the Biological Sciences section and every point counts. Chemistry is 50% of the Physical Science section so I am making sure to keep up in that area too. Hope you have a safe trip. See you soon. Kind Regards, Vinay Sehgal

Vinay Sehgal (MCAT student ))

A great tutor who enjoys chemistry as well as teaching it. Her teaching style is very understandable and easy. Neither have i had such a good chemistry tutor or have I understood chemistry as much as i did before I started classes with Uma. Couldn't ask for a better chemistry tutor!

Sai Muttavarapu-2013

Great job teaching Organic Chemistry specifically mechanisms of reactions. Thank you.

Felix

After the session I finally understood resonance structures of organic compounds. This is a high yield topic on the MCAT. I wish my college professor could teach as well as Uma.

Felix

I'm in the IB program, and having these online sessions to review for my exams are perfect! Thanks a lot!

Dusan

Really good. Tutor was well prepared and explained concepts by using different examples. The sessions are saved so they can be revised afterwards as well. ** HIGHLY RECOMMENDED **

Jamal Ahmed

It's great that you are so patient in explaining things multiple times and giving extra examples to work out to make sure that I understand the points. Thanks for all your help!

Sunitha 2012

Great session, I really like how you're challenged on your knowledge, it keeps you on your toes while learning - thanks!!

Trevor

very good lecture. mrs. uma know where to hit the chord

Jim 2013

the lecture was awesome. never thought i could solve organic chemistry with ease . it has been made possible under the guidance mrs. uma sharma..a wonderful teacher who has a very fine understanding of the needs of her students .

Jaspreet2011

I can tell you, the help is so valuable. I was ranging from 74-82%, everything is 90+ now waiting for the chem marks to be posted from last week. amazing tutoring in chemistry

Trevor Poole

Hello ms. Sharma, I wanted to let you know that my ap chemistry exam on monday went extremely well. :) Thank you so much for all the tutoring and help you gave me. I am very pleased with your teaching.... I wish you were my chemistry teacher! My chemistry teacher here was recently diagnosed with ovarian cancer. This is the third time she has gotten the cancer back and there is no guarantee for recovery. But i am very grateful to have come across your website.... I have survived chemistry because of you. Your love for chemistry has inspired me to pursue biochemistry, since i realized through you chemistry is a subject to enjoy and love. Its not just about learning the concepts but actually enjoying them! I am 100% going to continue with your website and teaching for general chemistry and organic chemistry in college. I will have also recommended your website to lots of my friends here. Once again, and never the last, thank you so very much for helping me and guiding me through chemistry. I miss having your sessions at night (over here, for you its morning :). But i will definitely see you in the summer with some more tutoring to prepare me for college! Thanking you, Yours sincerely, Anusha Sent from my iPad

Anusha (AP chem student)

hello ms. sharma! i got my ap scores today and i made a 4 out of 5 on ap chemistry!!!! thank you so much ms. sharma for helping me understand and enjoy chemistry, not just only learning it. i was literally in tears when i saw my score. i have claimed credit for general chemistry I and i will be taking general chemistry II. i have not scheduled for my classes yet.... but i will definitely join chemtopper.com again for chemistry, math and physics. thank you so much ms. sharma....... and i will meet you very soon! yours sincerely, Anusha

Anusha (AP chem student)

Hello Miss Uma, My name is Vivian Jaworsky. I was referenced to you by Dr. Glozman and his sons (Felix and Tomas) who were extremely satisfied with their progress as a result of your tutoring.I wanted to inquire about the tutoring services you provide for both high school chemistry and high school physics. In the past two years I took both courses and I wanted to move on to AP Physics and AP Chemistry in order to prepare for studying pre-med in college. I thought that it would be a good idea to refresh the two basic courses and find out where my weak areas in them are in order to be better prepared to take the AP courses. I was wondering how I could go about doing this with you and how the sessions for both work. Thank You.

Vivian Jaworsky- inquiry

I GOT A 100% I had to send you a picture ms. Sharma. See you next class! Regards, Anusha

Anusha Bontha (2014 general chemistry student)


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Organic Chemistry

Tips for Learning Organic Chemistry

To succeed in Organic Chemisry, you need a well organized approach. Remember the key to success in Organic Chemistry lies in understanding of the topics in detail. Some study tips for Organic Chemistry are as follows:-

  • Over 10 Million organic Compounds exist. You cannot possibly remember all of them. However once you know the basics of how they are formed, believe me, you will be able to understand them all.
  • Organic Chemistry is rational, systematic, highly organized and not at all difficult to understand. There is no need to be scared of Organic Chemistry - Organize yourself and you can master it.
  • Work on problems. More you work yourself, more intricacies you will understand. Lots of quizzes are available on this website - attempt them all. Click here to go to online courses
  • Study actively- with pen and paper. Draw structures for molecules mentioned by name. Write complete reactions during the practice with reagents.
  • Prepare the summary / flash cards for each topic - they help you to refresh your memory instantly.
  • Ask questions to your teacher. For this you need to study the topic one night before. Review your topics every day. Do not leave them for the penultimate day
  •  Each chapter requires the knowledge of previous ones to understand it fully. It is preferable to go in a sequence and not jump chapters.
  • Master periodic properties of elements so that you can understand organic mechanisms very well.
Organic Chemistry Topics
Mechanism of Acid Catalyzed Hydration
Organic Chemistry Topics
Structure Determines Properties
Atoms, Electrons, and Orbitals
Ionic Bonds
Covalent Bonds, Lewis Structures, and the Octet Rule
Double Bonds and Triple Bonds
Polar Covalent Bonds and Electronegativity    
Structural Formulas of Organic Molecules
Formal Charge
Resonance
The Shapes of Some Simple Molecules
Molecular Dipole Moments
Curved Arrows and Chemical Reactions
Acids and Bases: The Arrhenius View
Acids and Bases: The Brønsted-Lowry View
pKa and pKb
Structure Affects Acid Strength
Acid-Base Equilibria
Lewis Acids and Lewis Bases
Alkanes and Cycloalkanes: Introduction to Hydrocarbons
Classes of Hydrocarbons
Electron Waves and Chemical Bonds
Bonding in H2 : The Valence Bond Model
Bonding in H2 : The Molecular Orbital Model
Introduction to Alkanes: Methane, Ethane, and Propane  
sp 3 Hybridization and Bonding in Methane
Bonding in Ethane
Isomeric Alkanes: The Butanes
Higher n-Alkanes
  The pentane Isomers
Organic Nomenclature Applying the IUPAC Rules:
IUPAC Nomenclature of Unbranched Alkanes
The Names of the hexane Isomers
Alkyl Groups IUPAC Names of Highly Branched Alkanes
Cycloalkane Nomenclature
Sources of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Physical Properties of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes
Chemical Properties: Combustion of Alkanes
Oxidation-Reduction in Organic Chemistry  
Thermochemistry
sp 2 Hybridization and Bonding in Ethylene
sp Hybridization and Bonding in Acetylene
Theory of Chemical Bonding .  
Alkanes and Cycloalkanes: Conformations and cis-trans Stereoisomers
Conformational Analysis of Ethane
Conformational Analysis of Butane
Conformations of Higher Alkanes
The Shapes of Cycloalkanes: Planar or Nonplanar?
Small Rings: Cyclopropane and Cyclobutane
Cyclopentane
Conformations of Cyclohexane
Axial and Equatorial Bonds in Cyclohexane
Conformational Inversion (Ring Flipping) in Cyclohexane
Conformational Analysis of Monosubstituted Cyclohexanes
Disubstituted Cycloalkanes: cis-trans Stereoisomers
Conformational Analysis of Disubstituted Cyclohexanes
Medium and Large Rings
Polycyclic Ring Systems
Heterocyclic Compounds
Alcohols and Alkyl Halides
Functional Groups
IUPAC Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides
IUPAC Nomenclature of Alcohols
Classes of Alcohols and Alkyl Halides
Bonding in Alcohols and Alkyl Halides
Physical Properties of Alcohols and Alkyl Halides
Intermolecular Forces Preparation of Alkyl Halides from Alcohols and Hydrogen Halides
Mechanism of the Reaction of Alcohols with Hydrogen Halides
Potential Energy Diagrams for Multistep Reactions:
The S N 1 Mechanism Structure,
Bonding, and Stability of Carbocations
Effect of Alcohol Structure on Reaction Rate Reaction of Methyl and Primary Alcohols with Hydrogen Halides:
The S N 2 Mechanism
Other Methods for Converting Alcohols to Alkyl Halides
Halogenation of Alkanes
Chlorination of Methane
Structure and Stability of Free Radicals
Mechanism of Methane Chlorination
Structure and Preparation of Alkenes: Elimination Reactions .
Alkene Nomenclature
Structure and Bonding in Alkenes
Ethylene
Isomerism in Alkenes
Naming Stereoisomeric Alkenes by the E-Z Notational System
Physical Properties of Alkenes
Relative Stabilities of Alkenes
Cycloalkenes
Preparation of Alkenes: Elimination Reactions
Dehydration of Alcohols
Regioselectivity in Alcohol Dehydration: The Zaitsev Rule
Stereoselectivity in Alcohol Dehydration
The E1 and E2 Mechanisms of Alcohol Dehydration
Rearrangements in Alcohol Dehydration
Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides
The E2 Mechanism of Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides
Anti Elimination in E2 Reactions: Stereoelectronic Effects
Isotope Effects and the E2 Mechanism
The E1 Mechanism of Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl Halides
Addition Reactions of Alkenes
Hydrogenation of Alkenes
Heats of Hydrogenation
Stereochemistry of Alkene Hydrogenation
Electrophilic Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Alkenes
Regioselectivity of Hydrogen Halide Addition: Markovnikov's Rule
Mechanistic Basis for Markovnikov's Rule
Rules, Laws, Theories, and the Scientific Method
Carbocation Rearrangements in Hydrogen Halide Addition to Alkenes
Free-Radical Addition of Hydrogen Bromide to Alkenes
Addition of Sulfuric Acid to Alkenes
Acid-Catalyzed Hydration of Alkenes
Thermodynamics of Addition-Elimination Equilibria
Hydroboration-Oxidation of Alkenes
Stereochemistry of Hydroboration-Oxidation
Mechanism of Hydroboration-Oxidation
Addition of Halogens to Alkenes
Stereochemistry of Halogen Addition
Mechanism of Halogen Addition to Alkenes: Halonium Ions
Conversion of Alkenes to Vicinal Halohydrins
Epoxidation of Alkenes
Ozonolysis of Alkenes
Introduction to Organic Chemical Synthesis
Reactions of Alkenes with Alkenes: Polymerization
Stereochemistry 276
Molecular Chirality: Enantiomers
The Chirality Center
Symmetry in Achiral Structures
Optical Activity
Absolute and Relative Configuration
The Cahn-Ingold-Prelog R-S Notational System
Fischer Projections
Properties of Enantiomers
Chiral Drugs
Reactions That Create a Chirality Center
Chiral Molecules with Two Chirality Centers
Achiral Molecules with Two Chirality Centers
Molecules with Multiple Chirality Centers
Chirality of Disubstituted Cyclohexanes
Reactions That Produce Diastereomers
Resolution of Enantiomers
Stereoregular Polymers
Chirality Centers Other Than Carbon
Chapter 8 -  Nucleophilic Substitution
Functional Group Transformation by Nucleophilic Substitution
Relative Reactivity of Halide Leaving Groups
The SN 2 Mechanism of Nucleophilic Substitution
Steric Effects in SN 2 Reaction Rates
Nucleophiles and Nucleophilicity
The SN 1 Mechanism of Nucleophilic Substitution
Enzyme-Catalyzed Nucleophilic Substitutions of Alkyl Halides
Carbocation Stability and SN 1 Reaction Rates
Stereochemistry of SN 1 Reactions
Carbocation Rearrangements in SN 1 Reactions
Effect of Solvent on the Rate of Nucleophilic Substitution
Substitution and Elimination as Competing Reactions
Nucleophilic Substitution of Alkyl Sulfonates
Alkynes
Sources of Alkynes
Nomenclature
Physical Properties of Alkynes
Structure and Bonding in Alkynes: sp Hybridization
Acidity of Acetylene and Terminal Alkynes
Preparation of Alkynes by Alkyation of Acetylene and Terminal Alkynes
Preparation of Alkynes by Elimination Reactions
Reactions of Alkynes
Hydrogenation of Alkynes
Metal-Ammonia Reduction of Alkynes
Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Alkynes
Hydration of Alkynes
Addition of Halogens to Alkynes
Ozonolysis of Alkynes    
Conjugation in Alkadienes and Allylic Systems
The Allyl Group
Allylic Carbocations
SN 1 Reactions of Allylic Halides
SN 2 Reactions of Allylic Halides
Allylic Free Radicals
Allylic Halogenation
Allylic Anions
Classes of Dienes
Relative Stabilities of Dienes
Bonding in Conjugated Dienes
Bonding in Allenes
Preparation of Dienes
Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Conjugated Dienes
Halogen Addition to Dienes
The Diels-Alder Reaction
Diene Polymers
The Pi Molecular Orbitals of Ethylene and 1,3-Butadiene
A Pi Molecular Orbital Analysis of the Diels-Alder Reaction
Arenes and Aromaticity
Benzene
Kekulé and the Structure of Benzene
A Resonance Picture of Bonding in Benzene
The Stability of Benzene
An Orbital Hybridization View of Bonding in Benzene
The Pi Molecular Orbitals of Benzene
Substituted Derivatives of Benzene and Their Nomenclature
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Physical Properties of Arenes
Carbon Clusters, Fullerenes, and Nanotubes
Reactions of Arenes: A Preview
The Birch Reduction
Free-Radical Halogenation of Alkylbenzenes
Oxidation of Alkylbenzenes
Sn1 Reactions of Benzylic Halides
Sn2 Reactions of Benzylic Halides
Preparation of Alkenylbenzenes
Addition Reactions of Alkenylbenzenes
Polymerization of Styrene
Cyclobutadiene and Cyclooctatetraene
Hückel's Rule 448
Annulenes
Aromatic Ions
Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds
Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds and Hückel's Rule
Reactions of Arenes: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
Representative Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions of Benzene
Mechanistic Principles of Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
Nitration of Benzene
Sulfonation of Benzene
Halogenation of Benzene
Friedel-Crafts Alkylation of Benzene
Friedel-Crafts Acylation of Benzene
Synthesis of Alkylbenzenes by Acylation-Reduction
Rate and Regioselectivity in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution
Rate and Regioselectivity in the Nitration of Toluene
Rate and Regioselectivity in the Nitration of (Trifluoromethyl) benzene
Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Activating Substituents
Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Strongly Deactivating Substituents
Substituent Effects in Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution: Halogens
Multiple Substituent Effects
Regioselective Synthesis of Disubstituted Aromatic Compounds
Substitution in Naphthalene
Substitution in Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds
Spectroscopy
Principles of Molecular Spectroscopy: Electromagnetic Radiation
Principles of Molecular Spectroscopy: Quantized Energy States
Introduction to 1 H NMR Spectroscopy
Nuclear Shielding and 1 H Chemical Shifts
ffects of Molecular Structure on 1 H Chemical Shifts
Ring Currents: Aromatic and Antiaromatic
Interpreting 1 H NMR Spectra
Spin-Spin Splitting in 1 H NMR Spectroscopy
Splitting Patterns: The Ethyl Group
Splitting Patterns: The Isopropyl Group
Splitting Patterns: Pairs of Doublets
Complex Splitting Patterns
1 H NMR Spectra of Alcohols
   Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
NMR and Conformations
13 C NMR Spectroscopy
13 C Chemical Shifts
13 C NMR and Peak Intensities
13 C 1 H Coupling
Using DEPT to Count Hydrogens Attached to 13 C
2D NMR: COSY and HETCOR
Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy
Infrared Spectra
Characteristic Absorption Frequencies
Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-VIS) Spectroscopy
Mass Spectrometry
Molecular Formula as a Clue to Structure
Organometallic Compounds
Organometallic Nomenclature
Carbon-Metal Bonds in Organometallic Compounds
Preparation of Organolithium Compounds
Preparation of Organomagnesium Compounds: Grignard Reagents
Organolithium and Organomagnesium Compounds as Brønsted Bases
Synthesis of Alcohols Using Grignard Reagents
Synthesis of Alcohols Using Organolithium Reagents
Synthesis of Acetylenic Alcohols
Retrosynthetic Analysis
Preparation of Tertiary Alcohols from Esters and Grignard Reagents
Alkane Synthesis Using Organocopper Reagents
An Organozinc Reagent for Cyclopropane Synthesis
Carbenes and Carbenoids
Transition-Metal Organometallic Compounds
An Organometallic Compound That Occurs Naturally: Coenzyme
Olefin Metathesis
Ziegler-Natta Catalysis of Alkene Polymerization
 Alcohols, Diols, and Thiols
Sources of Alcohols
Preparation of Alcohols by Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones
Preparation of Alcohols by Reduction of Carboxylic Acids and Esters
Preparation of Alcohols from Epoxides
Preparation of Diols
Reactions of Alcohols: A Review and a Preview
Conversion of Alcohols to Ethers
Esterification
Esters of Inorganic Acids
Oxidation of Alcohols
Biological Oxidation of Alcohols
Economic and Environmental Factors in Organic Synthesis
Oxidative Cleavage of Vicinal Diols
Thiols
Spectroscopic Analysis of Alcohols and Thiols
Ethers, Epoxides, and Sulfides
Nomenclature of Ethers, Epoxides, and Sulfides
Structure and Bonding in Ethers and Epoxides
Physical Properties of Ethers
Crown Ethers
Preparation of Ethers
Polyether Antibiotics
The Williamson Ether Synthesis
Reactions of Ethers: A Review and a Preview
Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Ethers
Preparation of Epoxides: A Review and a Preview
Conversion of Vicinal Halohydrins to Epoxides
Reactions of Epoxides: A Review and a Preview
Nucleophilic Ring Opening of Epoxides
Acid-Catalyzed Ring Opening of Epoxides
  Epoxides in Biological Processes
Preparation of Sulfides
Oxidation of Sulfides: Sulfoxides and Sulfones
  Alkylation of Sulfides: Sulfonium Salts
Spectroscopic Analysis of Ethers, Epoxides, and Sulfides
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nucleophilic Addition to the Carbonyl Group
Nomenclature
Structure and Bonding: The Carbonyl Group
Physical Properties
Sources of Aldehydes and Ketones
Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones: A Review and a Preview
Principles of Nucleophilic Addition: Hydration of Aldehydes and Ketones
Cyanohydrin Formation
Acetal Formation
Acetals as Protecting Groups
Reaction with Primary Amines: Imines
   Imines in Biological Chemistry
Reaction with Secondary Amines: Enamines
The Wittig Reaction
Planning an Alkene Synthesis via the Wittig Reaction
Stereoselective Addition to Carbonyl Groups
Oxidation of Aldehydes
Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation of Ketones
Spectroscopic Analysis of Aldehydes and Ketones
 Enols and Enolates
The -Hydrogen and Its pKa
The Aldol Condensation
Mixed Aldol Condensations
Alkylation of Enolate Ions
Enolization and Enol Content
Stabilized Enols
Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones
Mechanism of Halogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones
The Haloform Reaction
Some Chemical and Stereochemical Consequences of Enolization
The Haloform Reaction and the Biosynthesis of Trihalomethanes
Effects of Conjugation in ,-Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones
Conjugate Addition to ,-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds
Addition of Carbanions to ,-Unsaturated Ketones: The Michael Reaction
Conjugate Addition of Organocopper Reagents to ,-Unsaturated Carbonyl Compounds
Carboxylic Acids
Carboxylic Acid Nomenclature
Structure and Bonding
Physical Properties
Acidity of Carboxylic Acids
Salts of Carboxylic Acids
Substituents and Acid Strength
Ionization of Substituted Benzoic Acids
Dicarboxylic Acids
Carbonic Acid
Sources of Carboxylic Acids
Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids by the Carboxylation of Grignard Reagents
Synthesis of Carboxylic Acids by the Preparation and Hydrolysis of Nitriles
Reactions of Carboxylic Acids: A Review and a Preview
Mechanism of Acid-Catalyzed Esterification
Intramolecular Ester Formation: Lactones
Alpha Halogenation of Carboxylic Acids: The Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky Reaction
Decarboxylation of Malonic Acid and Related Compounds
Spectroscopic Analysis of Carboxylic Acids
Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution
Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Structure and Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
General Mechanism for Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution
Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution in Acyl Chlorides
Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution in Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides
Sources of Esters
Physical Properties of Esters
Reactions of Esters: A Review and a Preview
Acid-Catalyzed Ester Hydrolysis
Ester Hydrolysis in Base: Saponification
Reaction of Esters with Ammonia and Amines
Amides
Hydrolysis of Amides
Lactams
Lactam Antibiotics
Preparation of Nitriles
Hydrolysis of Nitriles
Addition of Grignard Reagents to Nitriles
Spectroscopic Analysis of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives
Ester Enolates
Ester Hydrogens and Their pKa 's
The Claisen Condensation
Intramolecular Claisen Condensation: The Dieckmann Reaction
Mixed Claisen Condensations
Acylation of Ketones with Esters
Ketone Synthesis via -Keto Esters
The Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis
The Malonic Ester Synthesis
Michael Additions of Stabilized Anions
Reactions of LDA-Generated Ester Enolates
Amines
Amine Nomenclature
Structure and Bonding
Physical Properties
Basicity of Amines
   Amines as Natural Products
Tetraalkylammonium Salts as Phase-Transfer Catalysts
Reactions That Lead to Amines: A Review and a Preview
Preparation of Amines by Alkylation of Ammonia
The Gabriel Synthesis of Primary Alkylamines
Preparation of Amines by Reduction
Reductive Amination
Reactions of Amines: A Review and a Preview
Reaction of Amines with Alkyl Halides
The Hofmann Elimination
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution in Arylamines
Nitrosation of Alkylamines
Nitrosation of Arylamines
Synthetic Transformations of Aryl Diazonium Salts
Azo Coupling
From Dyes to Sulfa Drugs
Spectroscopic Analysis of Amines
Aryl Halides
Bonding in Aryl Halides
Sources of Aryl Halides
Physical Properties of Aryl Halides
Reactions of Aryl Halides: A Review and a Preview
Nucleophilic Substitution in Nitro-Substituted Aryl Halides
The Addition-Elimination Mechanism of Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution
Related Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions
The Elimination-Addition Mechanism of Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution: Benzyne
Diels-Alder Reactions of Benzyne
m-Benzyne and p-Benzyne
Phenols
Nomenclature
Structure and Bonding
Physical Properties
Acidity of Phenols
Substituent Effects on the Acidity of Phenols
Sources of Phenols
Naturally Occurring Phenols
Reactions of Phenols: Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Acylation of Phenols
Carboxylation of Phenols: Aspirin and the Kolbe-Schmitt Reaction
Preparation of Aryl Ethers
   Agent Orange and Dioxin
Cleavage of Aryl Ethers by Hydrogen Halides
Claisen Rearrangement of Allyl Aryl Ethers
Oxidation of Phenols: Quinones
Spectroscopic Analysis of Phenols
Carbohydrates
Classification of Carbohydrates
Fischer Projections and D-L Notation
The Aldotetroses
Aldopentoses and Aldohexoses
A Mnemonic for Carbohydrate Configurations
Cyclic Forms of Carbohydrates: Furanose Forms
Cyclic forms of Carbohydrates: Pyranose Forms
Mutarotation and the Anomeric Effect
Ketoses
Deoxy Sugars
Amino Sugars
Branched-Chain Carbohydrates
Glycosides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
Reactions of Carbohydrates
Reduction of Monosaccharides
Oxidation of Monosaccharides
Cyanohydrin Formation and Chain Extension
Epimerization, Isomerization, and Retro-Aldol Cleavage
Acylation and Alkylation of Hydroxyl Groups
Periodic Acid Oxidation
 Lipids
Acetyl Coenzyme A 1
Fats, Oils, and Fatty Acids
Fatty Acid Biosynthesis
Phospholipids
Waxes
Prostaglandins
Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) and COX-2 Inhibitors
Terpenes: The Isoprene Rule
Isopentenyl Pyrophosphate: The Biological Isoprene Unit
Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation in Terpene Biosynthesis
The Pathway from Acetate to Isopentenyl Diphosphate
Steroids: Cholesterol
Vitamin D
   Good Cholesterol? Bad Cholesterol? What's the Difference?
Bile Acids
Corticosteroids
Sex Hormones
Carotenoids
   Anabolic Steroids
   Crocuses Make Saffron from Carotenes
 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins
Classification of Amino Acids
Stereochemistry of Amino Acids
Acid-Base Behavior of Amino Acids
Synthesis of Amino Acids
Electrophoresis
Reactions of Amino Acids
Some Biochemical Reactions of Amino Acids
Peptides
Introduction to Peptide Structure Determination
Amino Acid Analysis
Partial Hydrolysis of Peptides
End Group Analysis
Insulin
The Edman Degradation and Automated Sequencing of Peptides
   Peptide Mapping and MALDI Mass Spectrometry
The Strategy of Peptide Synthesis
Amino Group Protection
Carboxyl Group Protection
Peptide Bond Formation
Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis: The Merrifield Method
Secondary Structures of Peptides and Proteins
Tertiary Structure of Polypeptides and Proteins
Coenzymes
Protein Quaternary Structure: Hemoglobin
Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids
Pyrimidines and Purines
Nucleosides
Nucleotides
Bioenergetics
ATP and Bioenergetics
Phosphodiesters, Oligonucleotides, and Polynucleotides
Nucleic Acids
Secondary Structure of DNA: The Double Helix
Tertiary Structure of DNA: Supercoils
Replication of DNA
Ribonucleic Acids
Protein Biosynthesis
AIDS
DNA Sequencing
The Human Genome Project
DNA Profiling and the Polymerase Chain Reaction
Synthetic Polymers
Polymer Nomenclature
Classification of Polymers: Reaction Type
Classification of Polymers: Chain-Growth and Step-Growth
Classification of Polymers: Structure
Classification of Polymers: Properties
Addition Polymers: A Review and a Preview
Chain Branching in Free-Radical Polymerization
Anionic Polymerization: Living Polymers
Cationic Polymerization
Polyamides
Polyesters
Polycarbonates
Polyurethanes
Copolymers

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